How Does American Myths’ Help Americans AVOID Their Individual Responsibility to Society in Social, Political, and Economical Issues and Problems?

By Trudy A. Martinez

“How does the American ‘Myths’ help Americans Avoid their individual responsibility to society in social, political, and economic issues and problems?”

In behest to the rationality of the connotation of this question, first we must probe the influence and ramification of world history upon present day America and fathom the affects of ideology upon the existence and worth of an individual. Then we must identify the myths and identify the process by which the myths have eroded and separated man from himself leaving him confused, bewildered, and overwhelmed. Through erudition and perspicacity of identification, the myths’ hindrance to man as an entity and probable cause for man’s avoidance of responsibility and obligation as a citizen of the United States may become apparent.

The American society has set a precedent in the history of nations; it has held together without revolution even though the people may be oppressed because the people never lose their “hope” for a better tomorrow (Chapter 19). Why is this hope retained in times of oppression? The explanation to this consideration is difficult as its resolution is an organization of theory.

The ideals were born in the age of the Enlightenment, the age of reason, the late seventeenth century. The ideology of one man, in particular, played an important role when he contributed to Western civilization the Two Treatises of Government, This man was John Locke; his radical change in governmental ideals introduced the concept of a contract between the government and the people, a concept where the people gave the government the power and the people would have the right to remove the government, if their right of “Life, Liberty, and Property” were not protected. Locke’s concept has “a passive affect, man is driven, the object of motivations of which he himself is not aware” (Fromm 18). It is a concept whereby a few govern the masses. One hundred years after Locke introduced his concept of government to the world; these same ideals were adopted by a new nation, America, when Thomas Jefferson wrote the “Declaration of Independence” using Locke’s principles. It was Locke’s principles that helped to shape the foundation of Democracy in America.

In addition to these principles, the pluralities of America’s fore fathers were authentic in concern. They desired a sovereignty that would confer regulation of the power to the people, for the people; this philosophy is confirmation of the theme and sincere interpretation of the Constitution. But, the Constitution was distinguished in a sovereignty clique with the abstraction of Locke’s ideology braced with a notion of “sameness’ and the impression of a strict moral code with the execution of purism. The notion of “sameness” was descended and stimulated by the doctrines of Calvinism. “Sameness” has become an agitator to common man’s search for oneness because of the aristocracy and the American elite’s aspiration. As a result of the arrangement of the new nation being contrived by the combination of these perceptions, the edifice of bureaucracy became a religion based upon natural law, reason, and the hopefulness of common man to achieve the same aspiration. The framers had created “stability” for their own interest.

Machiavelli’s benefaction in the early sixteenth century of the Prince concocted an insurrection in bureaucratic contemplation that cannot be left without attention since its placid idiosyncrasy has had extensive application in the bipartisan deliberation of the bureaucratic process in America in this century and has shifted consequential prejudice upon the world. Machiavelli’s Prince may be a panorama of repercussion of the mercenary gyrations of the late fifteenth century. The mercenary rotation accentuated commerce and was the initial constitute of capitalism. The Prince furnished “devious” man a system of jurisdiction over common man through forceful adeptness and evasive idiosyncrasy of posterity.

The American “National flag parallels the . . . origin of our country” (92nd Congress, 2D Session House Document No 92-376, Our Flag), America. The new nation of America was conceived from the “birthright from the peoples of many lands”(Our Flag 1), “Pluralism”, and the symbolic meaning of the “Stars and Stripes” contrived from “several origins back in the mists of antiquity to become emblazoned on the standards of our . . . Republic”(Our Flag 1).
“The star is a symbol of the heavens . . . the stripes is symbolic of . . . the rays of light emanating from the sun. Both themes . . . represented . . . the banners of the astral worshippers of ancient Egypt and Babylon . . .

The first flag of the colonists to have any resemblance to the present Stars and Stripes was the Grand Union Flag, sometimes referred to as the ‘Congress Colors’. It consisted of thirteen stripes, alternately red and white, representing the Thirteen Colonies, with a blue field in the upper left hand corner bearing the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, signifying union with the mother country. This banner was first flown by the ships at Colonial Fleet in the Delaware. . .

The resolution of 14 June 1777 establishing the Stars and Stripes has an interesting history. After the Declaration of Independence, colonial vessels were putting to sea to hamper enemy communications and prey on British commerce. Many of them flew the flags of the particular Colonies to which they belonged. It was necessary to provide an authorized national flag under which they could sail, for England considered armed vessels without such a flag as pirate ships and hanged their crews when the captured them. So the Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress presented the Resolution” (Our Flag 1-3).

The system by which the sovereignty clique discontinue common man’s conception of revolt is through a fantasy, formulated by the flag. The flag became a necessity to the new nation to prevent her mother country, England, from considering the colonial vessels as pirate ships and hanging their crews when they were captured. This tidbit of fact detailing how and why America adopted a national flag has a stench of collusion because not only did the flag become the emblem of the consolidation of the colonies, but it was also became the mechanism that inaugurated patriotism, the means by which the people were maneuvered by the Imperial force, Nationalism, delivering an individual through optimism into contention with an infinite quantity of objective forces (impersonal forces) joined together in harmony and charted to confuse, bewilder, and overwhelm the common man and deliver him into submission of the greedy ambitions of the affluent. As a result of man’s agony perplexed by the overwhelming impersonal forces, common man was and still is forced to conform or seek escape from his reality through the escape mechanism. Common man ceased to be an individual with a free choice; the freedom guaranteed by the constitution eludes his grasp.

The impersonal forces, the myths, gained their overwhelming strength following the Civil War when America changed from an Agrarian Society to a Capitalistic Society. Industrialization had been a drastic calculated change. The American elite had learned from the past, Anatole France. They prepared Americans to withstand the agony of oppression and thereby released elite man from the fear of revolution of the masses. Industrialization brought out the worse in man; it also produced or introduced a family of new “hope”, allowing subordination-ism of the impersonal forces that were driven by the Imperial Force, Nationalism. The impersonal forces are dependent and reliant on the existence of the Imperial Force, to guide both the rich and the poor to their destiny. The forces allowed America to go forward into progressivism which caused man to replace or alter his value system. It was undermined by radicalism, fueled by greed, and chosen as an alternative to revolution.

The New Article of Faith (progressivism) created a double standard, one for the individuals, and one for progressivism; one for the rich and one for the poor. From the origin of the Impersonal Force had come the birth of a “myth”, the “American Dream”, to strengthen the “Red, White, and Blue”. And give a continuing influx of internal “Hope” for a better tomorrow. A “’Pledge of Allegiance’ to the Flag” originated in 1892, it was first used in public schools in celebration of Columbus Day, 12 October 1892. . . Official recognition was received by congress in . . . 1942. . . The phrase ‘under God’ was added 14 June 1954. . . President Eisenhower said . . . in this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America’s heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which will be our country’s most powerful resource . . .”(Our Flag) Greed was added to virtue as a quality to advance common man to a higher status. Greed was the major cause of the oppression of man. A mandatory school system was the formula of suppressant that affirmed the governing of the opinion and knowledge of individuals during their impressionable years through the psychological science of Behaviorism. According to Erich Fromm, a modern-day Philosopher, “Knowledge is thought, psychological knowledge, is a necessary condition for full knowledge . . . while the great popularity of psychology certainly indicates an interest in the knowledge of man, it also betrays the fundamental lack of love in human relations today. Psychological knowledge thus becomes a substitute for full knowledge in the act of love, instead of being a step toward it” (Fromm 26). For the “rich” the imperial Force introduced Capitalism, and Conservatism, earned through the mastery of Behaviorism, justified through the practice of Darwinism and gained through application of Economic Expansionism, insured through Journalism, and ultimately reaffirmed through Freudianism. For the “rich” the Imperial Force produced Humanism as restitution for guilt; and Sexism as a symbol of superiority over maternal-ism. The use of behavioral tactics in the lower division school system is an aspect that presents a problem today.

Once the behavioral patterns are learned through the mandatory public school systems, it takes a stick of dynamite, near the brain of an individual, to release an individual from the influence of the myths so that their thought processes are actually their own . Behaviorism was a very effective tool to insure the future from revolution; it was and still is a method to control the masses. The myths were guided by the Imperial Force and for the poor and rising it introduced: Patriotism, gained through citizenship, Individualism, to replace the uniqueness of man, gained through a falsified freedom and restricting common man’s free will; Optimism, established by desire and reassured by achievements; and ultimately consumerism, propaganda, as reward for progress, and materialism as a symbol of acceptance of the new national religion. As “hope” for despair, it created populism (evolved to welfare); as an explanation of common man’s dilemma, it created narcissism (evolved to Freudianism); as an alternative to struggle, it created socialism (slated for deletion); as an artificial retaliation to capitalism; it created Marxism (evolving to capitalism, leaving man with no alternative but to conform to capitalism, consumerism or TV-ism); as an escape from reality, it created alcoholism and eventually drug-ism and TV-ism as alcoholism proved to no longer created a realistic escape from the reality of modern society; as a means of gain through despair for submission, it created sexism (evolved to racism and victim-ism). In modern society of Capitalism the current thought is toward natal-ism to alleviate the problems created by the escape mechanisms; the problems of large segments of society producing inferior specimens creates a state of welfare larger than that portion of society paying taxes, to reduce the growing welfare drastic steps are being considered to control the affects at birth.

The interest stirred by other countries in Americas system of government is perplexing when you consider the rich hope to take over the world in the same manner that they have taken control of millions of Americans. On a radio talk show, Sept. 1, 1990, there was an interview with a foreign school teacher, who said the school books in the first grades were being replaced and the prior books being destroyed. The new books reflect history different because the new regime, now under American influence, didn’t want the children to know the truth about the past. The revolutionary facts had to be removed; part of history had to be deleted as if it never existed. Sound familiar? Wasn’t the history of America glossed over and the truth slowly discovered by historians?

According to The American College Dictionary nation means:
1. An aggregation of persons of the same ethnic family, speaking the same language of cognate languages.
2. It belongs to a body of people associated with a particular territory who are sufficiently conscious of their unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly their own.
3. The Indian nation is considered.
This definition is odd when you consider the first definition doesn’t fit the American society and the dictionary is an “American” dictionary. When you take the order of sequence in analysis, you get a different perspective:
1. The nation belongs to the few, the rich, the social elite
2. It belongs to a body of people associated with a particular territory who are sufficiently conscious of their unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly their own.
3. The Indian nation is considered.
Why would an American dictionary list the first meaning with an application other than the American society? Is not the answer to the question apparent? Doesn’t the definition as presented imply the answer?

Why didn’t the framers of the American government consider the ideas of other philosophers such as Spinoza, the Dutch Philosopher? Were the framers aware that Tom Jefferson writing of the Declaration of Independence was actually the ideology of Locke? Was their fear of revolution a selfish consideration of the framers? Spinoza’s concept of freedom differed from the ideas of our fore fathers and Locke’s concept. Spinoza’s concept had “an Active affect, man is freed, he is the master of his affect” (Fromm 18). Whereas, the concept of the American society has “a passive affect, man is driven, the object of motivations of which he himself is not aware” (Fromm 18). “Spinoza arrives at the statement that virtue and power are one and the same. Envy, Jealousy, ambition, any kind of greed are passions; love is an action, the practice of a human power, which can be practiced only in freedom and never as a result of compulsion” (Fromm 18).

In conclusion and in my opinion, influence and the ramification of world history had a critical bearing up the construction of the American order. The affects of the ideology of Locke in amalgamation with some countenance of Calvinism, Puritanism, purism and Machiavelli, had a numbing seize upon common man by controlling common man’s freedom and striking unconstitutional authority over him through the execution of behaviorism. America has been an archetype for the world; it was conjectured, a design to emancipate the world unto Capitalism, a one world denomination. Machiavelli, Calvinism, Puritanism, purism, and man’s own urge to recapture paradise, are the justification for common man’s persecution by a sovereignty clique. The amalgamation of influence and ideology established the echelon for the admission of the main characteristic, the myth. To fortify the myth, for a lingering future without revolution, compulsory school routine taught the adolescence of the country through behaviorism, deriving the individual of their free choice, the freedom attested to by the constitution. The Americans now avoid their individual responsibility to society in social, political, and economic issues and problems because they are oblivious of their rightful position; they have striven to challenge the strategy and became bewildered; they perceive no manner without semblance of disillusioned disloyalty; or they have confused preoccupation in the issues and problems, the intricacy does not affect him; they fitting don’t have liberty laboring two occupations simply to survive; or they are overwhelmed with daily demands. The stability of the system is endured through the balance of impersonal forces, just as the stability of a nation is ensured through the balance of trade.

 

Reference Sources:

A Tale of Two Cities. By Charles Dickens.
World Classics edition, Oxford University Press
The Art of Loving. By Erich Fromm
Perennial Library Edition. Volume IX of the World Perspectives Series,
Edited by Ruth Nanda Ashen, Harper Row
Our Flag. 92d Congress, 2d Session, House Document No 92-376.
U.S. Government Printing.
The President of the United States of America. By Brank Freidel,
White House Historical Association with the cooperation of the National Geographic Society.
Government by the People. By Burns/Peltason/Cronin. Thirteenth Alternate Edition-1989
Printing, Prentice Hall.
The National Experience, Part II. A history of the United States since 1865. Seventh Edition.
By John M. Blum, W. S. McFeely, E.S. Morgan, A.M. Schlesinger, Jr. K.M. Stampp, C. V. Woodward. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.
Class Handouts and Assignments, Cerro Coso Community College, Western Civilization,
Springs 1990, Winchester, England, Instructor: Leo Girodit.

Political Science I, Cerro Coso Community College, Fall 1990, Dr. Don Rosenberg

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How does DeTocqueville’s Democracy in America help you to understand and deal with the media in relationship to ideals, values, and myths? by Trudy A. Martinez

How does DE Tocqueville’s Democracy in America help you to understand and deal with the media in relationship to ideals, values, and myths?
By Trudy A. Martinez

Influence and the ramification of world history had a critical bearing upon the construction of the American order. Whereas, today the influence and the ramification of the media’s interpretation of international and foreign affairs has critical bearing on America’s future.

America is an archetype for the world; it was and is a speculative design to emancipate the world into Capitalism, a new world denomination. With the Soviet Union joining the ranks of Capitalism, for a while it appeared the American elite and Soviet elite would become the governing agents of the world. De Tocqueville speaks as if he is living in the twentieth century when he says in his book, Democracy in America,

“There are at the present time two great nations in the world which started from different points, but seem to tend towards the same end. I allude to Russians and Americans . . . They suddenly place themselves in the front rank among the nations . . . these alone are proceeding with ease and celerity along a path to which no limit can be perceived . . . each of them seems marked out by the will of Heaven to sway the destinies of . . . the globe”(142).

The media had a field day with the Russians conversion into Capitalism. The propaganda of consumerism sways socialism into materialism. De Tocqueville appears to have known back in the eighteenth hundreds that America will come to be a dominate nation because he implies,

“There is less difference at the present day between the Europeans and their descendants in the New World . . . this tendency to [assimilate] brings foreign nations closer and closer to each other . . . “(De Tocqueville 142).

When Russia begins their industrial revolution, she mimics the history of America; Russia put a similar numbing seize upon the common Russian people by confining the common people’s freedom and striking unconstitutional authority over them through the execution of behaviorism.

“As social conditions become more equal, the number of persons increases who, although they are neither rich nor powerful enough to exercise any great influence over their fellows, have nevertheless acquired or retained sufficient education and fortune to satisfy their own wants. They own nothing to any man, they expect nothing from any man; they acquire the habit of always considering themselves as standing alone, and they are apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands” (De Tocqueville).

Christianity now openly appears in Russia. Is this the Russian man’s own urge to recapture paradise lost? Or is this merely the media’s communique for justification for Russian people’s persecution by sovereignty clique which is strongly colored by the media’s propaganda towards economic gain? In Russia, the myth, “The Russian Dream” is an external component of “hope”, whereas in America, “the American Dream” is internal “hope”. The difference may be seen in the mannerisms of the people. Russian’s have been on the brink of revolution while Americans accept their fate of oppression while remaining optimistic because the magic ingredient, “hope”, is programmed into the brain at a very early age. In this way America prevents revolution. The question is did Russia wait too long to join the ranks of the Americans? Is it still possible for Russia to pull the blind fold over the eyes of the Russian people without a revolution? Only time will tell. Will history repeat itself in the fashion of Anatole France or America?

The Founding Fathers of America set-up three branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branch. The objective is to connect, but yet segregate the distinguish segments of the government for the purpose of providing checks and balances within the system that will protect the government from despotism (dictatorship). “Yellow Journalism” facilitates the influencing of people in the efforts of sanctioning the Constitution through the publishing of The Federalist Papers, (an interpretation of the Constitution), adhered by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Federalist envision a powerful central government with individual state governments all syndicated together in a “firm union” (No. 9) revolving around the main force, the federal government. With this theme, the greatest amount of “liberty” will be afforded the individual states while strengthening the union to protect the union from internal and external fractions.

“The inference to which we are brought, is, that the causes of faction cannot be removed; and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects” (Madison #10). There are two methods of removing the causes of faction: the one by destroying the liberty which is essential to its existence; the other, by giving to every citizen the same opinion, the same passions, and the same interest” (Madison #10).

In other words, if we are to remove the causes of faction, we will destroy the liberty that “is essential to political life” (Madison #10). “Liberty” is to remain to preserve political life. Therefore, the effects of faction require controls through “sameness” (the concept of a partnership, in love, in marriage, in all endeavors), thereby, stifling individuality of the masses and effectively changing the value of man from a sharing nature to a selfish nature, making us all “as good citizens those who have no sympathy for any but themselves (De Tocqueville 194)” in order to form an equality basis.

In religious terms equality means “oneness”; i. e., we are all equally individual in the eyes of God, whereas in a capitalistic industrial society, equality has come to mean “sameness”. Thus, (in most cases) the individual is stifled; he is kept from realizing full knowledge or a true (creative) individuality. This is due to the controlling of the effects of faction within the society.

To effectively control a notion of sameness “the law increased the strength of . . . authorities (De Tocqueville 112)” while at the same time “it enfeebled more and more those which were naturally weak . . . the body is . . . free . . . the soul. . . is enslaved” (De Tocqueville 112). When a man’s soul is enslaved, reality escapes him; he is no longer free–liberty becomes a fantasy. “Liberty of opinion” comes to be taboo. This taboo of opinion may be seen through the lack of literary genius in America (when an intellectual emanates to show his/her genius in the literary field, he/she is quailed through tyranny of the majority) (De Tocqueville 114 – 119). “Sameness” is achieved through the ideology of Locke with “a passive affect, man is driven, the object of motivations of which he himself is not aware (Fromm 18). It is a concept whereby a few govern the masses, a system by which a sovereignty clique discontinues man’s conception of revolt through a myth, a fantasy with the help of the media, the Fourth Undeclared Branch of Government.

The arrangement of the American nation is contrived by a combination of perceptions: Locke’s ideology braced with a notion of “sameness” and a strict moral code with the execution of purism. The concept stresses religious freedom and the separation of the church and the state. But instead of separating the church from the state, the church is incorporated into the state delivering and individual through optimism into contention with an infinite quantity of objective forces (impersonal forces) joined together in harmony and charted to confuse, bewilder, and overwhelm common man and deliver him into submission of the greedy ambitions of the affluent.

“Men who live in democratic communities . . . seldom indulge in meditation . . . they . . . naturally entertain very little esteem for it . . . he risks less in making use of some false principles, then in spending his time in establishing all his principles, on the basis of truth” (De Tocqueville 165).

When you consider the happenings in Russia and read about the transition of socialism (communism) to capitalism, you find yourself wondering if there isn’t a conspiracy of the rich to control not only America but also the world.

“. . . The rich in democracies always stand in need of the poor; and that in democratic times, you attach a poor man to you more by your manner than by benefits conferred. The magnitude of such benefits, which set off the difference of condition, causes a secret irritation to those who reap advantages of them; but the charm of simplicity of manners is almost irresistible; affability carries men away and even want of polish is not always displeasing. This truth does not take root at once in the minds of the rich. . . that population does not ask them for sacrifice of their money, but of their pride” (De Tocqueville 197).

If America is not aware of America’s devious past, how can the governing few duplicate America’s history in a country on the other side of the world with such precision? How will they know the duplication must be precise to be efficient and to be effective? Why else is religious freedom now suddenly allowed in Russia?

“To minds thus predisposed, every new method which leads by a shorter road to wealth, every machine which spares labor, every instrument which diminishes the cost of production, every discovery which facilitates pleasure . . . seems to be the grandest effort of human intellect. It is chiefly from these motives that democratic people addicts itself to scientific pursuits . . .” (De Tocqueville 167).

As a result of man’s agony perplexed by the overwhelming impersonal forces, common man was and still is forced to conform or seek escape from his reality through the escape mechanisms. Common man ceases to be an individual with a free choice; the freedom guaranteed by the constitution eludes his grasp.

After the Civil War in America, major steps were taken to prevent a repeat of such a catastrophe. A mandatory school system is put in place to educate the masses. But doesn’t it make you wonder if educating the masses is the real reason? Or is the school system set-up to play games such as ‘blind man’s bluff” with the youth of America? Is history white washed? Are the masses controlled to prevent revolution? “Hope” appears to be the magic ingredient which guides the youth through behaviorism into a new way life with new values.

Is there “freedom of the press” in America? Or was and is “freedom of the press” the means of suppressing the masses? Does the press induce the public through the media (newspapers, magazines, television, and the movies) to satisfy the desires of the stronger faction? In the 1890′s as in the 1950′s, “yellow journalism” was a dominate force at work, feeding off the majority, oppressing the weak, with ideologies of Palmer and McCarthy. In 1948 the press is embarrassed. The press got caught wearing the Republican Hat when their papers hit the street announcing Truman’s defeat based on their opinion polls which were to sway the public to their way of thinking. When in actuality, the Democrats went to the polls (the only poll that counts) resulting in a triumph for Truman over Dewey.

“. . . The stronger faction could readily unite and oppress the weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign as in the state of nature, where the weaker individual is not secured against the violence of the stronger”(Madison #51).

The words of De Tocqueville and our forefathers are still true today: the stronger factions control the minds of the masses through the incorporation of TVism into the daily life of millions of Americans. A couch potato became reality when America began growing its vegetation in the living room of the American family.

Nearly every American couch has at least one fat potato planted on it an average of 7.5 hours per day; their job is to watch the “booby-tube”. What to buy? Who to buy it from? Get the dope; get duped; violence, violence, and more violence.

It makes one wonder: is there a conspiracy to shorten the lives of as many Americans as possible to make way for the fresh cheap labor that’s coming to America in the Jungle of new factories, industries, and McDonald’s?

In Mojave, McDonald’s has a new crew, all foreign workers (fresh, cheap, labor); these workers may be working for less than minimum wage. I overheard a conversation between two managers discussing a labor wage contract below the rates of minimum wage laws. How can this be? America makes it possible with laws on the books that allow hiring below minimum wage when the employee is in a training status. Who is to say that a training status doesn’t mean an alien–aliens have to start somewhere learning to be good consumer–iced Americans. McDonald’s are justified aren’t they? After all the American youth are not capable of working: the American youth is not interested—French- fries–fried brains are more along their lines; they have taken up other occupations–materialistic in nature, the materialism of others. Bottle sucking is out; sniffing and intravenous feedings are in.

Meanwhile, the masses of new soon-to-be Americans are converted through the consumerism of advertisement and subliminal messages into materialism to be damned in a hell on earth as the “American Dream” requires props (status symbols) that announce your status with a flare.

The lawyers and judges provide the checks and balances that may keep us safe from tyranny: hence, they control democracy. The trouble is they may be duped too. Legislation has seen controls put upon the media in regards to commercials seen on TV; this action should result in alleviation of some of the control over the minds of the youth (a tendency to convert the youth to the idealism of consumerism by way of deceit seen on the screen). If we require seeking assistance in protecting the privileges guaranteed through the Constitution and the Amendments, the Supreme Court becomes the interpreter and protector of the rights of the people as it is implied in the federalist papers. But not many people ever bother to read the Constitution or the Amendments; the belief alone satisfies. The myth; the American Dream; the red, white, and blue; and the hope for a better tomorrow keep us at bay: separate, divide, and control. A Disneyland of fantasies without revolt, without revolution; the American public is “the object of motivations of which he is not aware” (Fromm 18).

One could say with Democracy in America Tyranny of the majority is born. A foreigner, a French man says it all when he looks through the looking-glass into the “fairy-tale” land of America and says,

“The error arose from seeing the interest of the nobles perpetually contending with those of the people, without considering the issue of the contest, which was really the important point. When a community . . . is equally divided between adverse principles,–it must either experience a revolution, or fall into anarchy . . . social superior to all others must always be placed somewhere . . . liberty is endangered when this power finds an obstacle which can retard its course, and give it time to moderate its own vehemence . . . Unlimited is in itself a bad and dangerous thing. Human beings are not competent to exercise it with discretion. God alone can be omnipotent” (De Tocqueville 115).