RECONSTRUCTION

By Trudy A. Martinez

According to The American College Dictionary to reconstruct means to construct again; to rebuild; make over. What happens in the South following the Civil War does not meet the definition of reconstruction.  It is only a means of pacifying the guilt of those who originally profit from the slave trade. The actions they take are calculating, necessary moves that prove profitable, once again, for the North, the rich, and the rising upper-middle-class, the bourgeoisie, allowing their entrance into Industrialization. It is a means of gain from the misfortune of the southerners, the poor whites, and the blacks; a means of appeasement; an influx of Hope; a road block to revolution.

History dictates, as long as there is Hope for a better future, the common people will accept the hard times and the struggle to obtain and improve their status. How else can the government justify its action of freeing the salves, while at the same time, breaking the promise of 40 acres and a mule? The blacks are left with nothing more than the Hope of achieving a better tomorrow at the mercy of their previous owners, the Southern Elite.

The Freedman Bureau, a token agency (backed by the government, influenced by the rich, but yet, limited), was expected to achieve the impossible. From the beginning, the bureau has three strikes against it; it offers only hope and token justice by controlling the impersonal forces that determine history. One can only wonder if this is why President Lincoln, the role model for the common man, lost his life. Was the President’s death also determined by of one of those impersonal forces upon history? Did Lincoln make his strategy for reconstruction of our torn country known to the wrong people? These are questions for which we may never find the answers? Violence and a strong middle-class objection always pave the way for change in America, that is, when the change does not benefit the rich and the upper-middle-class.

In America (the land of the free, the government of the people), freedom is never a problem, or is it? Does a government of the people mean all the people: the common people, the blacks too? In 1865, is freedom a myth?

Guilt and restitution for the sins of the past alone does not free the slaves; it is a combination of greed and the desire to follow the footsteps of our mother county, England, into the Industrial Revolution. The slave trade is not just a source of guilt, but also a hindrance to progress placed on society by the greed of the past Northern Elite. The slaves only need to be free, no longer owned like cattle or a piece of property. What happens to the slaves after they are free is of no real concern to the Northern elite. True freedom is a luxury of the rich; one can only acquire freedom through status, prestige, or money; it is not a common man’s commodity.

Look at our past, the evidence is there. Our government is not a government of the people, at least not the common people, as the government wants us to believe; instead we are a government of the rich, the prestigious, the corrupt, the greedy, and the bourgeoisie. Our government is governed by the desires and whims of the rich. The common people are not a concern of the government until their Hope begins to fade; threats of revolution are in evidence by violence, loss of lives, and the voice of the middle-class objections are heard loud and clear.

Our sense of Nationalistic thinking begins with the birth of our flag, the red, white, and blue, signifying the blood, sweat, and tears of our fore fathers who win freedom from our mother country, England; they establish our Constitutional government, our Republic, by which the freedom of all the people are insured and protected. With this Nationalistic thinking, the common people are programmed to think they are unique, free, equal, and that truth and justice prevail; they are one nation, with a common goal. That thinking remains true until the north desires to enter venture into the industrialization of America. Then our common goal is obliterated.

The South didn’t cooperate. The South didn’t want to progress; it was enjoying all the advantages of slavery; it didn’t want to change; its goals differ. The violence of the Civil War is necessary before change can occur to achieve the desires of the Northern rich, to progress, to go forward, and to increase their wealth. The rich control the government; they want change only if it is beneficial to them, not when they pay a cost. The Civil War is a disagreement between the Southern rich and the Northern rich. In America, the rich grow richer at the expense of the poor, the working class, the common man, and the ethnic groups. The more blood, sweat, and tears the common man sheds, the wealthier the rich become. With the emancipation of the slaves, the Northern rich can induce the government into establishing a (forced) public education system. This education of the masses is a necessity for progress (if Industrialization is to occur) and for the rich to prosper from it.

When it becomes evident the common people are more than eager to learn, not only does education need controls, but also limits to and for those segments of society that are to become the working class of the Industrialization. The schools brain-wash the minds of the people by increasing the Nationalistic theme, i.e., to become one, together, with one goal, to increase the wealth of the nation, to build on the American Dream (the programmed dream: as long as we try, work hard; we will get ahead), a new article of faith, a myth. The owners of the means of production and progress keep it that way (a myth) by resisting payment of the true value of labor and by not sharing the wealth with those who make it possible for them to obtain it.

The Industrialization of America is a boom for the rich. They justify their mistreatment of the working class, depriving them of the fruits of their labor, through the practice and acceptance of Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest).

The American government, the government of the people, during times of trouble, during hard times, turns its back on the needs of the common people, the working classes, i.e., the poor whites, the blacks, the Hispanics, the women, and the children. While simultaneously denying the acceptance and practice of the theories of Darwinism, the government allows the unjust practices of industry whose roots are in the theories of Social Darwinism. Why? Because, the theories and practice of “Social Darwinism” allow for a natural selection of the fittest, justifying the actions of the rich by allowing them to capitalize at the expense of the working class, the common people. Masses of wealth accumulate, as a result. So much wealth accumulates that the rich find it necessary to plan their next greedy step into what they refer to as progress, Imperialism.

In conclusion and in my opinion, to reconstitute the government would have been better solutions in 1865, i.e., reconstruct the government, not just the South, but the North as well. The radicals could have gotten the backing of the masses, but fear stood in their way. Fear of revolution like the one unleashed in France in the year 1797. The radicals chose compromise at the expense and suffering of all future generations instead of facing the enviable, the necessity of change, i.e., of defining “freedom”, of defining “the government of the people” and achieving a real government of the people, the common people, all the people. Through the ending of injustice, invoking controls on the greedy, forcing “the owners of the means of production” to pay the true value of the labor and thereby, alleviating the unnecessary blood, sweat, and tears of the working classes, the aim of a government for all the people may achieve. One can only envision the outcome of what such a change might mean to America, i.e., utopia, little or no unemployment, rapid growth, and increased stability, a sense of pride surpassing the Nationalistic theme that gives a sense of false pride and of false reality.

Regardless, America achieves what no other country has ever accomplished: We remain strong and resolute irrespective of our faults. And we will continue to do so as long as we have Hope.

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Elite versus Democracy

By Trudy A. Martinez

Does the American government fit the definition of democracy in respect to the Constitution or is the Constitution strictly elitist?

According to The American Heritage Dictionary, the word democracy means:

1. (a) Government by the people exercised either directly or through elected representatives.

(b) A political unit with this form of government.

2. Social and political equality and respect for the individual within the community

The word elite means:

1. (a) The superior members of a social group.

(b) A small but powerful group.

Does the American government fit the definition of democracy in respect to the Constitution or is the Constitution strictly elitist?

The answer depends on the interpretation of the Constitution and most of all, who is doing the interpreting. The Constitution suggests an ‘elitist’ style of government whereby a few govern the majority. The original ideal bases its theory on equality and liberty, an extremely important element. The founding fathers (the white Anglo-Saxton Protestants) base the element of equality and liberty on their belief: Everyone is born a blank tablet, all equal.

The environment (the critical element) gives man the opportunity to be all he can be. Liberty (individual freedom of choice) grants people equality. The framers set up checks and balances in a Constitutional government to ensure equality and freedom and to alleviate oppression. However, the basis for the theory of the American Constitutional government never evolves to correct inadequacies gained after an internal war. The belief (man is born a blank tablet, equal) is only true when man is free to make his own choice; this aspect changes following the Civil War.

The war was said to give freedom to the slaves, but what actually transpires is only a token justice for the blacks; and in addition a mechanism by which control of all men (both black and white) is made to change the future. The establishment of control is brought about through behaviorism, mandatory schools, and the myths, leaving America and all its inhabitants to suffer the consequences. The eighteenth century philosophy of the framers becomes a mere illusion.

This is so because the application of a myth, behaviorism, and a mandatory school system controls, stifles, overwhelms, and blinds the common man; he is in a trap unaware of his circumstance with no way out other than the escape mechanisms the Impersonal forces provide. The Imperial force of Progressivism effectively steals the personal freedom and our blank tablet of equality when its theology creates and establishes sameness in place of individualism.

As a result of this inadequacy of the change in theology, a growing bureaucracy of corruption (evolving and transcending the politics) of government for the interest of those members of society who gain social superiority and economical superiority over the people (the majority).

Thus, instead of the Constitution, in conjunction with the Bill of Rights, granting equality and liberty for all as its equitable intent and purpose, the rights of the people evolve to the mercy of vice, corruption, and deceit, or the Supreme Court.

The Constitution, Article I, The Legislative Article, House of Representatives:

Apportionment; Section 2, “…direct Taxes shall be…included…according to…numbers…determined by adding to the whole Numbers of “free” Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years,…excluding Indians not taxed, “three fifths of all other Persons.

Say What? “Three fifths of all other Persons”? This is Elitist terminology; they’re saying we are not equal. What do we have to be to count as a whole person? Changes take place following the civil war:

Amendment 14–Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection of the Laws…Section 1

Ratified, July 9, 1868…”No state shall make or enforce any laws which…abridge the privileges of citizens…”

However what the federal government says or does depends on you. You don’t live in the federal government, you live in a state.

If the state makes or enforces laws that are contrary to federal law, it is the citizen’s responsibility to inform the federal government of the abridgement of those privileges. It takes time for Congress to Act. When citizens remain quiet, it is like sending up a signal saying, “Go ahead, have fun, abuse us; the federal government will not prosecute the State (at least not until, we the people object, loudly).

Amendment 14

Section 2…”…When the right to vote…is denied to any of the ‘male’ inhabitants…”

Remember the 14th Amendment is ratified in 1868? Per Section 2, any male inhabitants (including blacks) following the civil war have the right to vote; all males are whole; they are citizens.

(What about me, the White woman, and also the Black woman? Aren’t we citizens? Don’t we have rights? Don’t we count? (Unfortunately, not yet). Token Justice is not Justice for all. Note this ratification does not occur until following the Civil War. And the black man, even though he gains his right to vote, is not able to exercise the right for another 100 years.

The elitist extend their reign of Superiority to the Amendments to protect whose rights?

Section 5…”The Congress shall have the power to enforce…the provisions of this article…

The Federal government gives–and the State government takes– away! Just because there is a gain in rights doesn’t mean you get to exercise those rights right away. You see. The “KKK” was watching –at the state level. The black man waits 100 years before he steps up and objects to his unfair treatment. The Federal government doesn’t step in to enforce the law as written over a state law until there is objection. Women protest their plight and gain their right to vote from the federal government and the state government before the black man gets the opportunity to exercise his right because the women organize and object.

Article I…Senate Compositions: Qualifications, Section 3…The Senate…shall be composed of…Senators from each State, ‘Chosen by the Legislative thereof,…”

What? You mean I, one of the people, can’t vote for my own Representative and that the elitist have to make that decision for me? I am not trusted to make a quality decision?

Well we will see about that . . .

Sure enough the people gain control with ratification of the 17th Amendment, the people will be choosing their representation in the Senate. The Senator will be obligated to voice ‘their will’, the will of the people.

The Amendment implies that anyone may run for Office, but in actuality, a person who is not a member of the social or money elite winning an election will be a rarity, if not a near impossibility, today. In reality, Senators are not obligated to vote the voice of the people. Instead, the majority listen to lobbyist, Big Business, and special interest groups (the elitist). After all, everyone knows “money talks”, “bull-hockey walks”. However, if the people pay attention, they can vote them out at the end of their term for not voting the “will of the people.” After a while it begins to sink in, the people want their will acted on.

ARTICLE I, Section 6, Rights of Members…”shall…be privileged from Arrest…”

Here is an elitist part. When elected, a seasonal license to lie, steal, and cheat is issued to representatives? They are Immune–from prosecution of a misdemeanor? This makes one wonder if this is why Maryjane reduces to a misdemeanor. Doesn’t anyone get MADD because of these special privileges? Is it okay for them to drink and drive? This article establishes a double standard: One set of rules for the people and different one (set of rules) for the elite? Is that fair?

ARTICLE I, Section 8, Powers of Congress, “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts . . .

That is except when it serves the purpose of the elite to Censor—-The public must not learn the truth; artist who insists upon telling the truth about their (Congress) purpose must be censored. In other words, the freedom of expression is removed as a right of the people at the will of the elite.

But what about my guaranteed rights under the Constitution? Say What? The Constitution doesn’t grant me rights? But what about:

The Bill of Rights?

Amendment 1–Religion, Speech, Assembly, and Politics…Congress shall make no law…prohibiting…abridging…freedom of speech . . . .the press, or the right to…petition the Government for redress of grievances.

You say what? I have to wait for at least fifty years…, but I am already fifty–I won’t need to feed myself then–I’ll be dead! What? –You say–that’s what they are counting on? Maybe if I learn the ropes, I can get my right sooner? (They have a Jungle-Jim? With ropes?)

ARTICLE I, Section 8, Powers of Congress, “…To make all Laws…necessary and proper for…Execution …

The “Elastic Clause” evolves the duties of the Judiciary, “uniquely” in a historical sense; Marbury vs. Madison sets the wheels in motion. With the help of the Civil War, the power of interpretation by the Supreme Court becomes cemented in with the outcome of McCulloch v. Maryland; an example is set in concrete, perplexing the system, yielding judicial power unsurpassed in the history of the world. The Elite issue an insurance policy of supremacy. You say to get around it I have to ride what?–a Merry-go-round! You have a Circus here too? How much did you say it would cost me? I–Yi-Yi-Yi! The nine Supreme beings now sit in control?

Article 1 (ART-I-(CHUCKLE), Section 9, Powers Denied to Congress…

“…The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless…”

The purpose of the Elite shall be better served; the witch hunts, the “Red Scare”, Read-my–Palm-er, and Mc Cart-thy off, the snitch-man, witch-man, get under-the-desk, huntsman are proof of the “pudding”–“They stuck in their noise–where it didn’t belong–and pulled out a “Commie”, then said, ‘Oh, what a good Patriotic–“cheese”–boy am I!” What happened to our APPLE PIE? When did we revert to “yucky”–PUDDING? As a result, innocent people suffer unjustly, their freedom breached. Merely because the elite’s fear, not a revolution, not a threat, just- a shiver down their spine (guilt pangs from unjust practices–they remember what happened in Anatole France); all in the name of the elites’ freedom to oppress common man. (You say what?–your position is reaffirmed; I can’t escape?)

ARTICLE IV, Privileges and Immunities; Interstate Extradition, Section 2,

“A person charged…with…Treason…shall be delivered up on Claim…”

You mean I am not entitled to the due process of law? But–but–AMENDMENT 14 says: I shall not be deprived of my “life, Liberty, or Property” I am entitled to “equal protection under the laws”.

You say what?–that doesn’t apply to my situation–not when the witch men are in control–those rights are only reserved in situations concerning the State!

Article 1 (ART-I-CHUCKLE), Powers Denied to Congress, Section 9, paragraph 4,

“No Capitation, or …direct, Tax shall be laid, unless…Census…”

But, Capitation means: fixed tax, an equal sum per person–O-o-o-o-o-OH! You–Amended that!

AMENDMENT 16–INCOME TAXES, (Ratified February 3, 1913), “…Congress shall have the power to lay–collect taxes on incomes…without apportionment…without regard…to enumeration.”

Did I hear you say–President Wilson–the E-l-i-t-e–have plans,–OH–it’s a secret! It is not for us to wonder why, we are only supposed to pay, not lie. To tax the elites will be to our defeat–so they say–we must pay. “No Capitation . . .tax shall be laid…”–read on you’ll be dismayed!

Article 1 (ART-I-CHUCKLE), Section 9, paragraph 8,”…no Person holding any Office…, shall…, accept…any present…, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.”

But if you like you may sell your “soul” to the “country store”–you can. Yep! As long as you don’t get caught, because if you get caught “King” and “Prince” interpretation may be “King of Big Business” and the “Prince of Wall Street”. “Advantage rather than responsibility is the name of the game”, as long as you don’t get caught it won’t be your shame.

Article II–THE EXECUTIVE ARTICLE, Nature and Scope of Presidential Power,

“…Each State shall appoint,…may direct, a Number of Electors…Vote by Ballot…the Votes shall be counted…The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be President.”

Disillusion! “A bummer, I thought my vote counts; boy, I am misinformed. Why bother voting? My vote doesn’t matter! The elite perceive me as a loser, unable to make an intelligent decision, so why should I prove them right? Isn’t that what they taught me in school?

ARTICLE I, Section 2, Powers and Duties of the President

“…he shall have the Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons of Offenses…”

Pathetic, bigoted, affluent child, Poor diminutive hereafter elite! He’s being restrained from instruction about reality, prison life. He’s being denied the privilege of justice of an education in prison. How’s he ever to progress, to comprehend the truth, never having the opportunity to mingle, rub elbows with the poor black and the white refuse? “President, sir, did you know you are denying the affluent child a glimpse of reality?” You say, you already have another throne to sit him on–you reserve the Electric throne for us! Am I supposed to thank you?

Article III–The Judicial Article, Section 1,

The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior,..”

Once you’re in. you’re in! Forever more! Until death do you part? The Constitution is Elitist; you have no right to interfere–unless one of those “little beneath our feet” people learn the secret and object through the legal process, then and only then may you review the laws. That is only because the Federalist papers imply that right to you, not that you are given that right in this Constitution–remember–only TOKEN justice–CAN YOU–WAKE-UP!–CAN YOU REMEMBER THAT?

The first ten amendments, the Bill of Rights, in conjunction with the Supreme Court, suggest our rights, the rights of the people, are protected. If the people can afford financially to fight for the rights through the courts, they may have one of them.

The 1st Amendment grants: Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press,

Right to assembly, right to petition the Government for redress of grievances

But they are in the process of being changed–examples are being set–that elastic clause–worked for us once–it can just as easily go the other way–to work against us. Go ahead; read on. You are educated aren’t you?

AMENDMENT 2, “…THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS..” Don’t get excited, today you have it–tomorrow who knows?

AMENDMENT 3AMENDMENT 4–SEARCH AND SEIZURES, “The right of the people…against unreasonable search and seizures, shall not be violated…”

Well, that “unreasonable” means something different–you may bolt the door, but it’s more expensive to replace a door than to open it..

AMENDMENT 5…Due Process, and Eminent Domain, “…No person shall be held to answer…EXCEPT in cases arising in the land…”

You might as well use white-out on the later.

AMENDMENT 6, CRIMINAL..—

This one only means criminals. We the people don’t count; we have to wait for our cases to be decided.

AMENDMENT 7, Trail by Jury–Common Law,

AMENDMENT 8, Bail….,

AMENDMENT 9–RIGHTS RETAINED BY THE PEOPLE, “The enumeration in the Constitution, OF CERTAIN RIGHTS, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

You mean we have rights, but only CERTAIN rights?

AMENDMENT 10, –RESERVED POWERS…,The powers not delegated…by the Constitution…are reserved to the States respectively, or the people.

What power is left? Maybe we have certain rights, maybe we don’t. One thing for sure, the Constitution is an elitist document. The Bill of Rights is the document that may have our backs.

One can say with Democracy in America Tyranny of the majority is born. A foreigner, a French man, says it all when he looks through the looking-glass into the “fairy-tale” land of America and says:

“The error arose from seeing the interest of the nobles perpetually contending with those of the people, without considering the issue of the contest, which was really the important point. When a community . . . is equally divided between adverse principles,–it must either experience a revolution, or fall into anarchy . . . social superior to all others must always be placed somewhere . . . liberty is endangered when this power finds an obstacle which can retard its course, and give it time to moderate its own vehemence . . . Unlimited is in itself a bad and dangerous thing. Human beings are not competent to exercise it with discretion. God alone can be omnipotent” (De Tocqueville 115).

An Interpretation of History based on the Novel The Beautiful and Damned by F. Scott Fitzgerald and an essay: The Fact of the Force

 By Trudy A. Martinez

The Beautiful and Damned, a novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald who succumbs to alcoholism as an escape from his reality, the reality of his transgressions, and writes this book in restitution and as a release from his own pain of realization (so it is believed). The main characters in his novel suffer from a similar reality of transgression as they struggle down different paths towards achievement of their dreams of materialism.

In the end, they achieve it; or they struggle, experiencing hardships, tribulations, ruthless misery, loneliness, and then rewards of satisfaction and self-worth without succumbing to the materialism they desperately seek in the beginning.

The book centers around a young twenty-five (25) year old man, Anthony Patch, a Harvard graduate in the state of sublimity, who thinks of himself in the highest esteem with greatness as a destiny, and inherit wealth, a money aristocracy, gained through the achievements of his grandfather. Anthony is the grandson of Adam J. Patch, known as “Cross Patch”, a man who went from rags to riches playing the stock market on Wall Street, accumulating seventy-five million dollars and a guilty conscience. Although Fitzgerald begins the story in 1913, the actual plot begins in the year 1861 with the grandfather who works his way through the new impersonal forces of a nation destined to turn into a capitalistic society and damnation to some.

The grandfather comes to the realization of his transgressions and seeks restitution through reforms, but yet, he begins to force feed his morality and values upon Adam, his grandson, just as he was force feed in 1861 by the new society. Adam’s grandfather uses criticism as a tool molding Adam, I. e., conditioning through the practice of behaviorism; introducing patriotism through inducement to write about the war effort; stressing individualism through emphasis away from oneness towards sameness by restricting free will; producing optimism through the establishment of inheritance, a reward for progress which ultimately produces materialism as a symbol of acceptance. The Stewards of the system, the Presidents are guardians for the rich; they insure the stability of the system through reforms and through necessary changes, amendments to the constitution to induce gratification; to protect property; to protect individual rights; to regulate industry; to investigate deviations and corruption; and to monitor aggressors; and progress, and monetary rewards.

Adam J. Patch, Anthony’s grandfather, who in 1861 joins the war effort, a Union Calvary regiment in the Civil war, advances in rank to a major. Upon his return from the war, Adam sees opportunity for gain; he joins the speculators on Wall Street, the rich, the social elite, in the buying and selling of stock in their new religion, capitalism. “Cross Patch” converts; he gains much ill will, attempting to rub elbows with the rich. While at the same time, another segment of society (others of his own caliber) cheers and applauds as they also join the new aristocracy, the money elite, in their flight upward through the “Impersonal Forces”. Adam’s journey begins with his introduction to Nationalism through his Patriotism and taking up of arms to fight for the Union cause; he replaces his values, his uniqueness, his oneness, and his “love of man” in individualism for a false sense of “oneness”, i.e., “sameness”, a partnership, in all endeavors, in work, and later in marriage. In the Civil war, he fights for a false freedom, the end of slavery, the emancipation of the blacks.

A new freedom guaranteed through the constitution, the bible of the social elite, now expands to include Capitalism which differs slightly from the original views of the fore fathers of America. Through Optimism, his hope for a better tomorrow establishes his desires; his achievement reassure his dream. Adam sees through progress of industrialization he can subordinate the Impersonal Forces to guide him to the new ultimate destiny, Capitalism, the temple of the rich, and a new aristocracy of the money elite. As a reward for his progress he gains Materialism, a symbol of acceptance, progressivism, and a new Article of Faith. He hears the common man’s cry of despair, and turns his back on their voice of Hope which introduces through Populism and progressivism an alternative to struggle through Socialism. The new aristocracy recognizes the introduction of Marxism as an artificial retaliation to Capitalism with no merit, no method of application, or any real threat. The common man’s dilemma justifies itself through the theory and practice of Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer’s economic and social application of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, “Survival of the Fittest” which upholds the Paternalism of The Gospel of Wealth, Carnegies’ contribution, and the form of slavery so nice to society and murderous to the common man. To give in to the common man’s cry will be an injustice and against their “god’s” will for only the “chosen” are to survive the living hell of their existence.

“Cross Patch” did not suffer, he rose to the temple, but yet, falls; succumbs to the reality of his transgressions as he seeks escape through Alcoholism. Illness besets him; sclerosis redeems him to consecration of his past. “He becomes a reformer of reformers.” As a means of restitution, he attacks the escape mechanisms of despair for which he himself resorts; the deceitful decay of his values damns him to obligatory obscurity.

When Anthony’s grandfather marries, he marries well into a social acceptable family; his marriage bares him a son, Adam Ulysses Patch, Anthony’s father. Adam Ulysses Patch grows-up dull, an overrated, superficial, selfish man, and a continuation of Adam Patch himself. Ulysses marries a Boston socialite; the marriage produces one child, Anthony. When Anthony is five years old, his mother dies. Anthony and his father, Adam Ulysses Patch, go to live with his grandfather, Adam J. Patch.

Anthony gets continual empty and unfulfilled promises of togetherness, leaving him disillusioned because his father’s promise of tomorrow never comes. When his father finally follows through with a promise and takes Anthony on a trip abroad, he dies suddenly, leaving Anthony in a panic of despair. Anthony’s impressionable childhood years, five through eleven fills his life with death and despair. He lost both parents and his grandmother. As a diversion to his grief and a struggle against death, Anthony withdraws, indulges nearly his whole existence into an uncontrollable hobby of stamp collecting, his childhood escape from the reality of his meaningless existence. Anthony never feels nurture or love with both a paternal (conditional) and maternal (unconditional) balance in his life.

“He [lives] almost entirely within himself, an inarticulate boy, thoroughly un-American, and politely bewildered by his contemporaries.”

While schooling abroad a tutor successfully convinces Anthony to go to Harvard, as it will open doors for him, earn him friends, and social acceptance. So Anthony does, he goes to Harvard. After graduation at the age of twenty, he returns to Rome, and acquires culture. Anthony’s shyness as a result of his childhood conditioning and childhood withdrawal hinders him and dictates his conduct for the balance of his life.

Anthony returns to America in 1912 after learning of his grandfather’s illness, sclerosis. In America, he finds himself amidst the feverish election of 1912 which offers too many choices, i.e., William Howard Taft, the President, a Republican, is caught in intense battles between the progressives and conservatives; the progressive on-slaughter produces a split in the Republican Party when Theodore Roosevelt, a Progressive, bolts to lead the Progressives on the Bull Moose platform of his “New Nationalism, “which highlights conservationism; William Jennings Bryan, a Democrat and Populist, now faces an opposition with an eastern progressive Taft and a western progressive Taft in addition to a conservative Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, whose program of a “New Freedom” based on individualism and states’ rights. The break in the Republican Party soon ensures the election of Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, with his “New Freedom” policy to the White House and the Presidency with William Jennings Bryan as his Vice-President.

Anthony deserts his plans to live abroad; he decides to resign himself from his personal ambitions until after his grandfather’s death. Adam dreams of the day his grandfather will die, so he can inherit his fortune and live a life of luxury. Adam didn’t work, never worked, and did not intend to work; his income comes from interest on money he inherits from his mother. He contemplates writing as a career, but isn’t able to commit a single line to paper. Someday, someday, someday, never today; always tomorrow, empty devastating promises; just as his father conditioned him through behaviorism. Anthony continually finds incommoding escapes from reality.

Anthony is the recipient of negative, critical observations of his Grandfather’s scrutiny. Everything about Anthony’s life is pre-ordained through the conditioning of hereditary compromise, “Damned.” His “hope” and dream of writing about the middle ages are met with asperity by his grandfather, leaving him with a sense of despondency. Adam Patch lives his life voluptuously a legacy for which Anthony’s vanity is damned.

Anthony imagines:

“himself in Congress rooting around in the litter of that incredible pigsty with the narrow and porcine brows he saw pictured sometimes in the rotogravure sections of Sunday newspapers, those glorified proletarians babbling blandly to the nation the ideas of high school seniors! Little men with copy-book ambitions who by mediocrity had thought to emerge from mediocrity into the lusterless and unromantic heaven of a government of the people—and the best, the dozen shrewd men at the top, egotistic and cynical, were content to lead this choir of white ties and collar-buttons in a discordant and amazing hymn, compounded of a vague confusion between wealth as a reward of virtue and wealth as a proof of vice, and continued cheers for God, the Constitution, and the Rocky Mountains!”

Anthony begins to look for something beautiful in life, something or someone who will help bring him out of disparity. When Anthony meets Gloria Gilbert, the most beautiful woman he has ever seen, who shares the same dreams and the same escapes, he falls passionately in love, and soon marries her. The minister who marries them takes on the air of bourgeois with flashy gold teeth. Both Anthony and Gloria share the same dream, the dream of the day they will be filthy rich. Once they marry, they share their dream as if in partnership; the dream is their future, that triumphant day when Adam Patch dies; they find endless ways of relieving their boredom while they wait to inherit luxury by spending money way above Anthony’s income; and they even purchase an automobile in the fury of materialism sweeping the capitalistic society of America. Anthony and Gloria sink deeper and deeper into the escape mechanisms, using the sensationalism stirring the country as an excuse for their excessive indulgence. They have nothing except the stench of liquor and cigarettes to show for the money spent. They eat, drink, and make merry, while running from their own existence; they contemplate the death of Adam’s grandfather and the celebration of life thereafter as successors to his wealth. The hedonic nature of their existence, their devotion to happiness and gratification full of pleasure, which clouds their succulent dream of riches, is their goal.

In the year 1913, the Progressive Movement blooms; President Wilson maneuvers major legislation through congress, the Underwood Act to lower tariffs and its attachment, a graduated income tax; and the Federal Reserve Act to provide elasticity to the money supply.

War breaks out in Europe, growing into a World War. World War I stimulates the American economy through trade with war filled countries. Woodrow Wilson, the President of the United States, manages to keep America out of the war, while at the same time tending to some of the restitution of guilt for the money and social elite through progressive reform legislation. In 1914 an antitrust legislation establishes a Federal Trade commission to prohibit unfair business practices. Then in 1916, another burst of legislation brings new laws which prohibit child labor and limit railroad workers to an eight-hour day. Because President Wilson’s hard work produces those and other reforms and the slogan, “he kept us out of war,” Wilson narrowly wins the 1916 presidential race and reelection to the office of the Presidency. Up till this time, government protects business over an individual (religion became a business, and corporations consider themselves individuals under the constitution). It appears to the public as if the individual, the common man, is finally becoming a protected concern of the government.

Criticism enters Anthony and Gloria’s relationship, criticism of others and each other. They travel and squander money on endless drunken parties. Anthony attempts to work, but finds self-assurance and opportunism wins out over technical knowledge in Capitalistic America, so he resigns. With no ambition, but he continually attempts to please his grandfather.

“Anthony completed a Chestertonian essay on the twelfth century by way of introduction to his proposed book.”

An essay, Anthony’s grandfather will never admit to reading. He suggests Anthony write about the Germans, offers to pay expenses, that is, as long as he conforms to his grandfather’s values. Anthony’s grandfather objects to Anthony’s curiosity and need to write about the era of the “Dark Ages”? Is there a secret in this period of history that will reveal a mystery of mankind that some men want to be kept a secret?

At one of their drunken parties Maury gives his thinking on some secrets, but “Maury’s adaptation left his friend disappointed and Gloria had shown her disinterest by falling asleep.” Then again at a later date, Anthony and Gloria join friends and a drunken party ensues. Adam Patch, who that very day gives funds to help the national cause of prohibition, decides to disinherit Anthony (without Anthony’s knowledge) after an abrupt unannounced and unexpected visit to see Anthony and Gloria at their summer home. He appalls at the sight of a wild drunken party in progress; he condemns Anthony because of the unrighteous way he is pursuing life. A lifestyle he also employs in his youth.

Both Anthony and Gloria are in a state of panic from the realization of his grandfather’s visit. They ponder ways to make up with his grandfather with righteousness. All attempts fail. They move back to New York City, where they find inflation accelerates the cost of an apartment to above one-third of their income; their income dwindles. Anthony continues to seek restitution and forgiveness from his grandfather, but is kept from his grandfather’s sight.

When Adam Patch dies, all the newspapers relish in the opportunity to tell of his riches and dream of industrialism using tainted propaganda (they avoid mentioning Adam’s attempts to make restitution for the error of his ways through the reforms he sponsors and finances). When Anthony discovers to his dismay, he is not mentioned in the will of his grandfather, he decides to contest the will. The newspapers have a heyday when the terms of the will are made public and also print items concerning Anthony’s suit. Rumors run amuck and Anthony becomes bitter. Anthony’s bitterness increases as he is reminded of the cruelty of life with the death of a proud man, who dies from the indirect actions of some young thugs; a man who obviously got caught up in the Impersonal forces and reduced to a job beneath his stature, the job of a janitor in the building where Anthony lives. When Gloria gets an inheritance after the death of her mother, Anthony learns her beliefs differ from his and he and Gloria begins to argue more and more as they both begin to sink further and further into obscurity. All Anthony’s attempts to becoming a successful writer fail. They again live for today. The beautiful Gloria enters the glamorous motion picture industry as an illumination of her beauty against Anthony’s wishes. Their animosity for each other grows and so does their criticism.

The British intercept and communicate to Washington, D.C., A secret order, the Zimmermann notes, which instructs the German foreign minister to invite Mexico and Japan to join the Central power, (if the United States joins the war effort) and offers the booty of lost lands in the southwest to Mexico as an enticement. Wilson publicized the Zimmermann note to win votes for his proposal of arming American merchant ships and employ other means necessary to protect American vessels and citizens at sea. Wilson states, “No one was immune from the German aggression”. Journalism assists Wilson; they cry and shout hysterically about the evil morals, philosophy, and music of the Teutonic characteristics of Germany, stirring up the American people to correct the world situation and go to the aid of England and France, who are on the side of God, in their fight for glory.

Then on April 2, 1917, Woodrow Wilson reverses his previous stanch of emphasis on the individual when the United States of America declares war on Germany and enters the war on the side of the Allies. All meaningful legislation Wilson maneuvers through congress suddenly become obsolete, e.g., the Underwood Act which lowers tariffs on imports is now useless as in time of war there are no imports; the Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair business practices is worthless as the government contracts with big business (exclude small business) for urgently needed war materials.

America’s interest in the First World War begins with an increase Nationalism in 1898, when America declares war on Spain. The Spanish-American War is the signal of America’s entrance into “Imperialism”. The culmination of Nationalism and Imperialism are the indirect cause of America’s entrance into the First World War and of the World War itself. The question to the President and to the congress from big business investors who invest heavily through-out the world and especially in England, our mother country, is: “How [can] America remain isolated in foreign affairs when Americans [stands] to lose so much?”

With the end of the American Revolution, Quincey Adams, then President of the United States, took America into Isolationism for the purpose of staying out of foreign affairs and European wars. Woodrow Wilson, on the other hand, wants to end the Isolation of America and involve America in foreign affairs for the purpose of greedy Imperialist who plan America’s entrance into the First World War. Woodrow Wilson becomes their partner in this endeavor; he is a very clever man, who thinks “God” ordains him. He pursues the “Politics of Morality”. He is a southern white Presbyterian, who is out to save America and is now out to save the world.

The best and the brightest, the aristocrats, the alumni of three or four Eastern colleges, join the war efforts by applying for officer school. Anthony, however, is determined to be unfit for service as his ideals are un-American. West Point emerges. The propaganda of journalism guides Americans causing a sudden shift in attitudes. Everything is glorious, every race, (except the German race) is a great race. The previous outcasts and scapegoats now join the armed forces and are forgiven. Patriotic citizens favor the arm forces with alcoholic drinks all across America.

The sign of the times adds to Anthony’s disparity. When Anthony receives word the jury bases its decision on the immorality of his lifestyle, the verdict they deliver favors the testator; Anthony reciprocates by appealing the decision as he feels the fortune is his birthright.

Government institutes the selective service act which includes all qualified men regardless of social position.

“All males between the age of 21 and 30 were ordered to personally appear at their polling place in the Election District in which they reside.”

The purpose of appearance is to register for the draft. The war effort produces two million volunteers and three million draftees. This allows Anthony to enter the war as a private with no mention of the previous reason for his exclusion as an officer. Anthony, an aristocrat by birth right, is destined to rub elbows with the lower classes, to see the growing dissension first hand and the impersonal forces at work, the behaviorism tactics thrust upon the men with the malice of school boys, the odd and playful fancy of all army administration, the stressing secession of immeasurable detail, the indignity of the common man’s position, the breaking of man’s spirit, the changing of values, the fears, the disappointments, the hate, the lies, the regret, the emotional unstable war.

It is too late, he is no longer an individual; he is a puppet, lacking the ability to make a decisions on his own. Anthony moves from one disparity to another, doubt is born; he is nervous, irritable, afraid, and angry at the world. It is then he makes a fatal error in judgment; he lies and suffers the consequences as he sinks deeper into depression and a drunken daze. His punishment, confinement; Anthony is going mad; he feels a sense of terror, a fearsome ménage of horror. He exhausts himself and becomes ill with his release from confinement.

“He was aware that his illness was providential. It saved him from a hysterical relapse.”

Mail from Gloria requires his attention as Anthony and Gloria grew further and further apart. The war is near an end. Anthony did not leave the states; his imprisonment at Camp Mills is an enigma. The camp is under quarantine from influenza; it is a filthy, windswept, cold, dreary muddle, a breeding place for disease. When word comes the enemy, Germany, is ready to surrender. West Pointers become angry because the war is going to stop before they get a chance to go overseas. Then suddenly the war appears over and Anthony is on his way home to New York to Gloria. There is a celebration in the air; people are drunk with happiness and alcohol.

Gloria’s life apart from Anthony brings her to the realization her once close friends are not really friends, but mere acquaintances, selfish and unfulfilling. Her own morals diminish. Anthony is a stranger to her, someone from her distant past. She is filled with memories and with regret for not living her life differently, for not succumbing to her birthright of motherhood. But now she is faced with Anthony and the possibility of fulfilling a mutual dream of being filthy rich. Things change, prices highly inflate; their income dwindles further; the stocks drop, and their investments are not paying; they both sink into disparity and engulf in parties and alcohol again. Their life is like a yo-yo, up, down, up, down. Anthony (in need) takes the job of a salesman, selling stock to those who cannot afford them; he is destined to failure. Their dollars shrink not only in amount, but also in purchasing power.

As the need for war materials end, America is suddenly sent backward. President Wilson travels abroad to Paris, France, leaving his responsibility and legacy of the Presidency and the American people behind. He is greeted as no other ever was greeted, he thinks, as the “savior” of the world. Wilson comes equipped with his famous fourteen points to bring peace to the world, a way to end all wars, through application of the fourteenth point, the League of Nations. The League of Nations allows reason to prevail in settlement of the problems of the world. There is evidence of starvation on the streets of Europe; the swollen stomachs of young children also suggest malnutrition. President Wilson is no match for the other three great powers at the peace conference. Britain’s Lord George, France’s George Clemenceau, and Italy’s Orlando are ruthless, greedy, domineering, authoritarians with stubborn revengeful streaks: their deceitful pride does not allow Germany, the loser of the war, to sit in the conference for peaceful resolutions. A big mistake, a mistake that will cost the world greater destruction; it will spark the attitudes and actions of those responsible for the “Treaty of Versailles”. Woodrow Wilson makes grave errors as the President of the United States, he listens to the money elite, he leaves America unguided for six months, he fails to appoint an influential Republican to the America delegation at the peace conference, and he thinks of himself as the “savior” of the world which leaves him vulnerable to his fate. Getting ill in Paris forces him to trust others and forces him to compromise beyond his original beliefs. When Wilson returns home, he faces unbearable world embarrassment as the Senate will not sign nor recognize his achievements, the “Treaty of Versailles” and the fourteenth point, the League of Nations. The President succumbs to his fate and collapses, leaving America to the wolves and his second wife.

Rapid growing unemployment emerges at the end of the war and the American attitude suddenly changes; they are disillusioned, alienated, and feel abandoned. The working class, the common man, is disciplined as strikes break out all over America and businesses refuse to cooperate with the need and the demands for higher wages. Investment and get rich quick schemes flourish. Old prejudices arise once again; organizations like the Ku Klux Klan and the NAACP emerge working against each other when needs of dissention are planted by big business and journalism, thus resulting in race riots. Prohibition brings more drinking.

“To have liquor was a boast, almost a badge of respectability.”

The Jazz age blossoms, a “live for today” attitude, a form protest of the times, and age of nonconformity and dissent, allowing sexual permissiveness to lead to a decline in morals in urban America. Big business and Journalism produce a Red Scare that drives an unjustified fear into the hearts of the common people. The Red Scare is brought on by the fears of big business of the new communist party, a combination of Marxist-Lenin theory which arises out of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and sends chills down the backs of the capitalistic business world. Lenin believes only revolution throughout the world will bring about the culmination of Marx’s theory of the Dialectic, communism, and Lenin’s theory of implementation through force. Lenin says to the communist people, “We must send professionals, professional revolutionaries, through-out the world and make it happen”. Take over the world from the owners of the means of production, the Capitalist. When Journalism capitalizes using propaganda to influence the people of America against such notions, the result is the “Red Scare”. The propaganda of Journalism causes man to go against his neighbor, his friends, snitching becomes an everyday practice, and the feeling that no one can be trusted begins to take over society. America has been censored, and it is back to Isolationism, dramatic plays get labels of pornography and art leads to extreme reactions of delight or discuss.

The Federal Bureau of Investigations, the FBI, is established to investigate suspect aliens and radicals under the strenuous, inhumane campaign of Attorney General Palmer. Hundreds of Russians who are not guilty of any crimes, nor communists, get deported; six thousand people, mostly American citizens, are arrested (prompted by suspicion) and taken from their homes without cause, warrants, or justification, and then held against their will. There is no evidence of a communist plot, but few Americans speak out because of the false illusion journalism makes. Palmer continues to send false messages of fear to the American people, causing mass hysteria, coupled with the fear of an unknown. The government allows the Attorney General to violate the constitutional rights of thousands of Americans under a false pretext of a revolution, a fear of communism, an unjust fear, that starts with business, the owners of the means of production, as a method to prevent revolution as they know their oppression of the working class is unjust and can result in revolution with the help of the communist. The remembrance of the historical French Revolution is still fresh in the mind of the greedy capitalist.

It is back to “Isolationism” when Warren G. Harding wins the election of 1920. He is a weak man who uses pompous phrases with no definite appeal, who “looked like a President”, who likes the taste of whiskey, and who lets the machine bosses set the policies.

“By 1923 the post war depression seemed to be giving way to a new surge of prosperity,–‘less government in business and more business in government’”. “Advantages rather than responsibility were also the goal of the representative of business and finance who shaped the domestic policies of the Harding Administration.”

Harding’s soap box approach gives way to a bubble that bursts by dirt of a scandal, the Teapot Dome Scandal, which is conveniently withheld from the public until the day after his questionable death.

Sigmund (Sex) Freud, the Jewish German, introduces his Freudian theory of the Libido, the ego, superego and the Id, the selfishness of man, the “I want” struggle of the conscious and the unconscious mind for the pleasure and gratification, a theory that becomes his passport out of Germany at the onset of World War II, his escape from death at the hands of the fascist movement of Adolph Hitler who rises out of a quilt filled Germany to bring destruction and death to the world as restitution for their transgressions against Germany, the superior race. Freudianism gives rise to Narcissism as an explanation for the common man’s dilemma. The Freudian theory, based on the Capitalistic society, reaffirms and conveniently compliments “Capitalism. In actuality man’s narcissism is a direct result of the Capitalistic society replacing the values of man from “Oneness with God” and “Oneness with Man” to “Sameness”, a concept of partnership, in marriage, in work, in all endeavors, giving man Materialism, Narcissism, Alcoholism, Sexism, Darwinism, and justifying the “Paternalism” of the Capitalistic societies Gospel of Wealth, the form of slavery that is so nice to society and murderous to the common man.

Gloria’s self-esteem declines abruptly into paranoia as she realizes her beauty and freshness is fading and is replaced with wrinkles. Along with Gloria’s beauty, her love for Anthony also fades, but she stays faithfully by him in their partnership of marriage even as he sinks deeper and deeper into his alcoholic escape. They still share the same dream of riches.

When the dream comes to be reality and Anthony recovers the family fortune by winning the lawsuit, Adam Patch’s estate, the legacy of Anthony’s birthright, it appears to be too late for Anthony, he appears beaten, and he withdraws once again to his childhood obsession. Had Anthony’s victory come too late? Was his victory now his damnation? There is no turning back. If Anthony was given his grandfather’s estate without a fight, his reaction may have differed; he may have succumbed to materialism. But now all Anthony can do is reminisce, to look back on his hardships, his tribulations, his ruthless misery, his loneliness, and his justification in obtaining his birth right, an autocracy. He is no longer materialistic in his thinking.

“Great tears stood in his eyes, and his voice was tremulous as he whispered to himself. “I showed them,” she was saying. “It was a hard fight, but I didn’t give up and I came through!”

What then is his gain? Is not the advantage of a money autocracy, a form of materialism and Anthony’s gain? Anthony diverts the Impersonal Forces and takes responsibilities for his own life. He does this without succumbing to Materialism. It is not for us to judge Anthony. Anthony’s “hope”, his optimism, is his inheritance; he gains satisfaction when he gains his birthright, his inheritance. Anthony’s previous actions reflect the mood and the atmosphere of the post war era of World War I. The post war era of World War I and World War II differ.

“Franklin D. Roosevelt assuming the Presidency at the depth of the Great Depression helped the American people regain faith in themselves. He brought hope as he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, ‘the only thing we have to fear is fear itself’.”

Approximately three months after Roosevelt is elected to the Presidency, America sinks to its lowest point in the Great Depression. Thirteen Million people are unemployed and almost every bank closes. Roosevelt is a man of action destined to reestablish the faith in Capitalism.

“In the first ‘hundred days’, he proposed, and congress enacted, a sweeping program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to losing farms and homes, and reform, especially through the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority.”

Businessmen and bankers fear the actions of Roosevelt and dislike the Nation being taken off the gold standard, the deficit budget, and the concessions made to labor. Businessmen and bankers are unwilling to pay for the changes, but they reaped the rewards through Materialism and want to keep them. Roosevelt is a man of action and knows these actions are necessary to prevent a possible revolution from within with the growing unrest of the middle classes; he responds with new programs of reform:

“Social Security, heavier taxes on the wealthy, new controls over banks and public utilities, and an enormous work relief program for the unemployed.” ‘In 1936 he was re-elect —-he sought legislation to enlarge the Supreme Court, which had been invalidation key New Deal measures. Roosevelt lost the Supreme Court battle, but a revolution in constitutional law took place. Thereafter the government could legally regulate the economy.”

Roosevelt pledges a “good neighbor” policy against aggressors in the Western hemisphere which transform the Monroe Doctrine, a doctrine America now feels they have the strength to protect. Roosevelt seeks to keep America out of the European wars while pledging to help nations that are under threat or attack. America is to remain neutral? How can America remain neutral and follow the contradicting policies put into effect? The President is given power to implement embargoes that threaten or attack other nations. Problems arise all over Europe. Japan becomes aggressive again and Germany unifies under their fascist leader, Adolph Hitler. The French fall to Germany’s aggression. Aid short of war is the policy of foreign affairs in America. With this attitude, war is inevitable.

Through Roosevelt, America helps to strengthen the countries that will eventually retaliate against it because America suddenly becomes unable to defend the Monroe Doctrine as Roosevelt pledges. The Philippines, America’s stepping stone to Asia, is in jeopardy to Japan. Roosevelt feels the salvation of the world peace will ultimately depend upon the relations between opposites, i.e., Russia, the communist, and the United States, the capitalist. Therefore, he devotes his energies to the planning of the United Nations, the afterbirth of Wilson’s fourteenth point.

When Japan retaliated against America redirected into global warfare. Internally the American political machine  retaliated the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, by focusing America’s efforts  upon citizens of Japanese descent, removing them from their homes against their free will into what is referred to as protective custody, imprisonment, stripping them of their due rights as Americans; rights guaranteed them by the Constitution. In times of war Americans have no rights. Roosevelt’s health deteriorates. He dies in 1945 just prior to the close of the war, Harry Truman, Roosevelt’s successor, is not informed of the developments and difficulties of the wartime problems that suddenly come to be his problems to solve. He tells reporters:

“I felt like the moon, the star, and all the planets had fallen on me.”

During World War II he headed the Senate war investigating committee, checking into waste and corruption and saving perhaps as much as fifteen billion dollars.

As President, Truman faces crucial decisions. At first he follows Roosevelt policies, policies which damn America into becoming a police state for the correction of world unrest, pledging the lives of Americans to solve world problems while at the same time ignoring the suffering needs of Americans at home; he witnesses the signing of the United Nations charter. But it isn’t long before he develops his own policies.

“He presented to Congress a 21-point program, proposing the expansion of Social Security, a full employment program, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, public housing and slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote, ‘symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of President to my own right.’ It became known as the Fair Deal.”

Truman retaliated against Japan after sending a warning shot of fear into the world and bringing the world to a peaceful means of communications, the coalition of the United Nations and the entrance of America into a Cold War, a military dominated complex. Truman campaigns successfully in 1948 against Dewy, the same man who tells the Spanish governor to get out of the Philippines when America declares war on Spain and helps allow American big business to take its first greedy step into Imperialism. With Truman as President, America does not revert back into Isolationism as it did during post World War I; instead, America pursues the “Truman Doctrine”, the Marshall Plan which stimulates economic recovery in war-torn Western Europe. Truman takes the stanch to fight against aggression rather than feed and nourish it. He negotiates a military alliance to protect Western nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. When postwar antagonism utilizes aggression to bring about communism in Korea, America along with the United Nations holds a line above the old boundary keeping the war a limited one.

When Truman gives his address to the nation in 1948, he states his views outright:

“We have rejected the discredited theory that the fortunes of the nation should be in the hand of a privileged few, instead, we believe that our economic system should rest on a democratic foundation and that wealth should be credited for the benefit of all. The recent election shows that the American people are in favor of this kind of society. Every segment of our population and every individual has a right to expect from his government a fair deal.”

Truman meets with opposition from business and congress in implementing his strategies; he wins some, and loses some. Truman seeks a “war against world poverty”, but is hindered by business and congress from achieving the same justice for all the American people. Truman also meets with opposition in his efforts in Korea from the military. General McCarthy voices opposition to Truman by making allegations. The Tyding Committee declares McCarthy works a “fraud and a hoax”, but the backlash of the Korea war gives McCarthy an audience which produces another Red Scare sending school children under their desks in fear of atomic bombs; these scare tactics continue in force until 1953, but are not held with the severity as they are in the previous scare of 1919:

“Slander, lies, character assassinations—these things are a threat to every single citizen everywhere in this country. When even one American—who has done nothing wrong—is forced by fear to shut his mind and close his mouth, then all Americans are in peril.”

How is true justice to prevail in America when men like Truman, who fight for the individual, are made to look silly under the false threats of communism brought on by the fear of business paying their fair share of wars which are of their making and for their profit or prevention of losses in their Materialism? Truman is a man of the people who fights for legislation and reforms that help the common man. Under Truman the common man is not reduced to the bread lines with the severity of oppression from big business as they are in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Truman listens to what the people say and makes his intention know to follow the designs of America people, when Eisenhower is elected President in 1952, he plays along with the game of politics, but in his farewell address he seeks restitution and warns America of things to come:

“The conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence—economic, political, even spiritual—is felt in every city, every State house, and every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need of this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved, so is the very structure of our society.

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisitions of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted . . . Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial military posture, has been the technical revolution during recent decades . . . The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present—and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we would, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy would itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite (January 17, 1961).”

In conclusion, the Steward of the rich, the President, is merely a guardian for the rich, whose policies differ from guardian to guardian, giving only the minimum amount of change or adjustment to prevent revolution and establish “hope” or reestablish faith in the system. There is but one exception, Harry S. Truman who becomes the President because of the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Truman’s administration during the postwar era of World War II brings changes to the American society, helps the common man, through establishment and revisal of reforms, thus preventing or attacking the abuse, massive oppression, discrimination, and fears that were felt by the common man and the middle class in America at the hands of big business and government in the post-World War I era under Harding.

And in my opinion, the Capitalistic Society is a nation whose processes, rewards, and acceptance through Materialism can be the damnation to one’s soul if an individual chooses the wrong path upward through the impersonal forces toward an American dream. However, it is also a reward (through non-conformity) because under the Capitalistic society the freedom of choice of which road to take on the travel upward through the impersonal forces toward the American dream is left up to the individual, not the government.

How Does American Myths’ Help Americans AVOID Their Individual Responsibility to Society in Social, Political, and Economical Issues and Problems?

By Trudy A. Martinez

“How does the American ‘Myths’ help Americans Avoid their individual responsibility to society in social, political, and economic issues and problems?”

In behest to the rationality of the connotation of this question, first we must probe the influence and ramification of world history upon present day America and fathom the affects of ideology upon the existence and worth of an individual. Then we must identify the myths and identify the process by which the myths have eroded and separated man from himself leaving him confused, bewildered, and overwhelmed. Through erudition and perspicacity of identification, the myths’ hindrance to man as an entity and probable cause for man’s avoidance of responsibility and obligation as a citizen of the United States may become apparent.

The American society has set a precedent in the history of nations; it has held together without revolution even though the people may be oppressed because the people never lose their “hope” for a better tomorrow (Chapter 19). Why is this hope retained in times of oppression? The explanation to this consideration is difficult as its resolution is an organization of theory.

The ideals were born in the age of the Enlightenment, the age of reason, the late seventeenth century. The ideology of one man, in particular, played an important role when he contributed to Western civilization the Two Treatises of Government, This man was John Locke; his radical change in governmental ideals introduced the concept of a contract between the government and the people, a concept where the people gave the government the power and the people would have the right to remove the government, if their right of “Life, Liberty, and Property” were not protected. Locke’s concept has “a passive affect, man is driven, the object of motivations of which he himself is not aware” (Fromm 18). It is a concept whereby a few govern the masses. One hundred years after Locke introduced his concept of government to the world; these same ideals were adopted by a new nation, America, when Thomas Jefferson wrote the “Declaration of Independence” using Locke’s principles. It was Locke’s principles that helped to shape the foundation of Democracy in America.

In addition to these principles, the pluralities of America’s fore fathers were authentic in concern. They desired a sovereignty that would confer regulation of the power to the people, for the people; this philosophy is confirmation of the theme and sincere interpretation of the Constitution. But, the Constitution was distinguished in a sovereignty clique with the abstraction of Locke’s ideology braced with a notion of “sameness’ and the impression of a strict moral code with the execution of purism. The notion of “sameness” was descended and stimulated by the doctrines of Calvinism. “Sameness” has become an agitator to common man’s search for oneness because of the aristocracy and the American elite’s aspiration. As a result of the arrangement of the new nation being contrived by the combination of these perceptions, the edifice of bureaucracy became a religion based upon natural law, reason, and the hopefulness of common man to achieve the same aspiration. The framers had created “stability” for their own interest.

Machiavelli’s benefaction in the early sixteenth century of the Prince concocted an insurrection in bureaucratic contemplation that cannot be left without attention since its placid idiosyncrasy has had extensive application in the bipartisan deliberation of the bureaucratic process in America in this century and has shifted consequential prejudice upon the world. Machiavelli’s Prince may be a panorama of repercussion of the mercenary gyrations of the late fifteenth century. The mercenary rotation accentuated commerce and was the initial constitute of capitalism. The Prince furnished “devious” man a system of jurisdiction over common man through forceful adeptness and evasive idiosyncrasy of posterity.

The American “National flag parallels the . . . origin of our country” (92nd Congress, 2D Session House Document No 92-376, Our Flag), America. The new nation of America was conceived from the “birthright from the peoples of many lands”(Our Flag 1), “Pluralism”, and the symbolic meaning of the “Stars and Stripes” contrived from “several origins back in the mists of antiquity to become emblazoned on the standards of our . . . Republic”(Our Flag 1).
“The star is a symbol of the heavens . . . the stripes is symbolic of . . . the rays of light emanating from the sun. Both themes . . . represented . . . the banners of the astral worshippers of ancient Egypt and Babylon . . .

The first flag of the colonists to have any resemblance to the present Stars and Stripes was the Grand Union Flag, sometimes referred to as the ‘Congress Colors’. It consisted of thirteen stripes, alternately red and white, representing the Thirteen Colonies, with a blue field in the upper left hand corner bearing the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, signifying union with the mother country. This banner was first flown by the ships at Colonial Fleet in the Delaware. . .

The resolution of 14 June 1777 establishing the Stars and Stripes has an interesting history. After the Declaration of Independence, colonial vessels were putting to sea to hamper enemy communications and prey on British commerce. Many of them flew the flags of the particular Colonies to which they belonged. It was necessary to provide an authorized national flag under which they could sail, for England considered armed vessels without such a flag as pirate ships and hanged their crews when the captured them. So the Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress presented the Resolution” (Our Flag 1-3).

The system by which the sovereignty clique discontinue common man’s conception of revolt is through a fantasy, formulated by the flag. The flag became a necessity to the new nation to prevent her mother country, England, from considering the colonial vessels as pirate ships and hanging their crews when they were captured. This tidbit of fact detailing how and why America adopted a national flag has a stench of collusion because not only did the flag become the emblem of the consolidation of the colonies, but it was also became the mechanism that inaugurated patriotism, the means by which the people were maneuvered by the Imperial force, Nationalism, delivering an individual through optimism into contention with an infinite quantity of objective forces (impersonal forces) joined together in harmony and charted to confuse, bewilder, and overwhelm the common man and deliver him into submission of the greedy ambitions of the affluent. As a result of man’s agony perplexed by the overwhelming impersonal forces, common man was and still is forced to conform or seek escape from his reality through the escape mechanism. Common man ceased to be an individual with a free choice; the freedom guaranteed by the constitution eludes his grasp.

The impersonal forces, the myths, gained their overwhelming strength following the Civil War when America changed from an Agrarian Society to a Capitalistic Society. Industrialization had been a drastic calculated change. The American elite had learned from the past, Anatole France. They prepared Americans to withstand the agony of oppression and thereby released elite man from the fear of revolution of the masses. Industrialization brought out the worse in man; it also produced or introduced a family of new “hope”, allowing subordination-ism of the impersonal forces that were driven by the Imperial Force, Nationalism. The impersonal forces are dependent and reliant on the existence of the Imperial Force, to guide both the rich and the poor to their destiny. The forces allowed America to go forward into progressivism which caused man to replace or alter his value system. It was undermined by radicalism, fueled by greed, and chosen as an alternative to revolution.

The New Article of Faith (progressivism) created a double standard, one for the individuals, and one for progressivism; one for the rich and one for the poor. From the origin of the Impersonal Force had come the birth of a “myth”, the “American Dream”, to strengthen the “Red, White, and Blue”. And give a continuing influx of internal “Hope” for a better tomorrow. A “’Pledge of Allegiance’ to the Flag” originated in 1892, it was first used in public schools in celebration of Columbus Day, 12 October 1892. . . Official recognition was received by congress in . . . 1942. . . The phrase ‘under God’ was added 14 June 1954. . . President Eisenhower said . . . in this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America’s heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which will be our country’s most powerful resource . . .”(Our Flag) Greed was added to virtue as a quality to advance common man to a higher status. Greed was the major cause of the oppression of man. A mandatory school system was the formula of suppressant that affirmed the governing of the opinion and knowledge of individuals during their impressionable years through the psychological science of Behaviorism. According to Erich Fromm, a modern-day Philosopher, “Knowledge is thought, psychological knowledge, is a necessary condition for full knowledge . . . while the great popularity of psychology certainly indicates an interest in the knowledge of man, it also betrays the fundamental lack of love in human relations today. Psychological knowledge thus becomes a substitute for full knowledge in the act of love, instead of being a step toward it” (Fromm 26). For the “rich” the imperial Force introduced Capitalism, and Conservatism, earned through the mastery of Behaviorism, justified through the practice of Darwinism and gained through application of Economic Expansionism, insured through Journalism, and ultimately reaffirmed through Freudianism. For the “rich” the Imperial Force produced Humanism as restitution for guilt; and Sexism as a symbol of superiority over maternal-ism. The use of behavioral tactics in the lower division school system is an aspect that presents a problem today.

Once the behavioral patterns are learned through the mandatory public school systems, it takes a stick of dynamite, near the brain of an individual, to release an individual from the influence of the myths so that their thought processes are actually their own . Behaviorism was a very effective tool to insure the future from revolution; it was and still is a method to control the masses. The myths were guided by the Imperial Force and for the poor and rising it introduced: Patriotism, gained through citizenship, Individualism, to replace the uniqueness of man, gained through a falsified freedom and restricting common man’s free will; Optimism, established by desire and reassured by achievements; and ultimately consumerism, propaganda, as reward for progress, and materialism as a symbol of acceptance of the new national religion. As “hope” for despair, it created populism (evolved to welfare); as an explanation of common man’s dilemma, it created narcissism (evolved to Freudianism); as an alternative to struggle, it created socialism (slated for deletion); as an artificial retaliation to capitalism; it created Marxism (evolving to capitalism, leaving man with no alternative but to conform to capitalism, consumerism or TV-ism); as an escape from reality, it created alcoholism and eventually drug-ism and TV-ism as alcoholism proved to no longer created a realistic escape from the reality of modern society; as a means of gain through despair for submission, it created sexism (evolved to racism and victim-ism). In modern society of Capitalism the current thought is toward natal-ism to alleviate the problems created by the escape mechanisms; the problems of large segments of society producing inferior specimens creates a state of welfare larger than that portion of society paying taxes, to reduce the growing welfare drastic steps are being considered to control the affects at birth.

The interest stirred by other countries in Americas system of government is perplexing when you consider the rich hope to take over the world in the same manner that they have taken control of millions of Americans. On a radio talk show, Sept. 1, 1990, there was an interview with a foreign school teacher, who said the school books in the first grades were being replaced and the prior books being destroyed. The new books reflect history different because the new regime, now under American influence, didn’t want the children to know the truth about the past. The revolutionary facts had to be removed; part of history had to be deleted as if it never existed. Sound familiar? Wasn’t the history of America glossed over and the truth slowly discovered by historians?

According to The American College Dictionary nation means:
1. An aggregation of persons of the same ethnic family, speaking the same language of cognate languages.
2. It belongs to a body of people associated with a particular territory who are sufficiently conscious of their unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly their own.
3. The Indian nation is considered.
This definition is odd when you consider the first definition doesn’t fit the American society and the dictionary is an “American” dictionary. When you take the order of sequence in analysis, you get a different perspective:
1. The nation belongs to the few, the rich, the social elite
2. It belongs to a body of people associated with a particular territory who are sufficiently conscious of their unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly their own.
3. The Indian nation is considered.
Why would an American dictionary list the first meaning with an application other than the American society? Is not the answer to the question apparent? Doesn’t the definition as presented imply the answer?

Why didn’t the framers of the American government consider the ideas of other philosophers such as Spinoza, the Dutch Philosopher? Were the framers aware that Tom Jefferson writing of the Declaration of Independence was actually the ideology of Locke? Was their fear of revolution a selfish consideration of the framers? Spinoza’s concept of freedom differed from the ideas of our fore fathers and Locke’s concept. Spinoza’s concept had “an Active affect, man is freed, he is the master of his affect” (Fromm 18). Whereas, the concept of the American society has “a passive affect, man is driven, the object of motivations of which he himself is not aware” (Fromm 18). “Spinoza arrives at the statement that virtue and power are one and the same. Envy, Jealousy, ambition, any kind of greed are passions; love is an action, the practice of a human power, which can be practiced only in freedom and never as a result of compulsion” (Fromm 18).

In conclusion and in my opinion, influence and the ramification of world history had a critical bearing up the construction of the American order. The affects of the ideology of Locke in amalgamation with some countenance of Calvinism, Puritanism, purism and Machiavelli, had a numbing seize upon common man by controlling common man’s freedom and striking unconstitutional authority over him through the execution of behaviorism. America has been an archetype for the world; it was conjectured, a design to emancipate the world unto Capitalism, a one world denomination. Machiavelli, Calvinism, Puritanism, purism, and man’s own urge to recapture paradise, are the justification for common man’s persecution by a sovereignty clique. The amalgamation of influence and ideology established the echelon for the admission of the main characteristic, the myth. To fortify the myth, for a lingering future without revolution, compulsory school routine taught the adolescence of the country through behaviorism, deriving the individual of their free choice, the freedom attested to by the constitution. The Americans now avoid their individual responsibility to society in social, political, and economic issues and problems because they are oblivious of their rightful position; they have striven to challenge the strategy and became bewildered; they perceive no manner without semblance of disillusioned disloyalty; or they have confused preoccupation in the issues and problems, the intricacy does not affect him; they fitting don’t have liberty laboring two occupations simply to survive; or they are overwhelmed with daily demands. The stability of the system is endured through the balance of impersonal forces, just as the stability of a nation is ensured through the balance of trade.

 

Reference Sources:

A Tale of Two Cities. By Charles Dickens.
World Classics edition, Oxford University Press
The Art of Loving. By Erich Fromm
Perennial Library Edition. Volume IX of the World Perspectives Series,
Edited by Ruth Nanda Ashen, Harper Row
Our Flag. 92d Congress, 2d Session, House Document No 92-376.
U.S. Government Printing.
The President of the United States of America. By Brank Freidel,
White House Historical Association with the cooperation of the National Geographic Society.
Government by the People. By Burns/Peltason/Cronin. Thirteenth Alternate Edition-1989
Printing, Prentice Hall.
The National Experience, Part II. A history of the United States since 1865. Seventh Edition.
By John M. Blum, W. S. McFeely, E.S. Morgan, A.M. Schlesinger, Jr. K.M. Stampp, C. V. Woodward. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.
Class Handouts and Assignments, Cerro Coso Community College, Western Civilization,
Springs 1990, Winchester, England, Instructor: Leo Girodit.

Political Science I, Cerro Coso Community College, Fall 1990, Dr. Don Rosenberg

A Look Back at History: Failure versus Success

By Trudy A. Martinez

Populism is a cry of reform from rural America as a result of economic expansionism and urbanization. When times are bad for the farmers in the mid-west (the new rural America), they call for reform for themselves and the working class in the eastern factories and industries (the new urban America). The Populist effort to alter the status quo reveals a strong desire for reform, a sense of fair play, and a sense of hope. Their determination to correct a dream of false optimism on the verge of reaching hopelessness presents political overtures. However, reform and enforcement will only be made through the Steward of the rich, the President, through Progressivism.

The restructuring to come will produce a new hope for the rising, so the rich can continue on with the purpose of their nation, their religion, their goal in life, to bring America and eventually the world under their control.
The laws government places on the books for Progressivism are mere building blocks for future reorganization, clarification, and enforcement; they are utilized only if there is a need to give an influx of hope in the prevention of revolution.

The Regulatory laws are supposed to STOP corporation corruption and monopolies in the process. The purpose of the regulatory laws is to give a sense of purpose. It forbids railroads from engaging in discriminatory practices, requires them to publish their rate schedules, prohibits them from entering pooling agreements for the purpose of maintaining high rates, and declares the rates shall be reasonable and just. The purpose of controlling such actions is prohibited through vague and obscure language. Regulatory laws assert the governments right to regulate private enterprise, but give only a sense of purpose, an exerted means of dominance, allowing the elite to prosper and gain control of the largest businesses and corporations while government turns its back; this action (or inaction) by the government, allows the owners of the means of production to capitalize at the expense of the working class.

America is now urban, not rural. The rural Populist want government control of savings accounts, women rights, income tax reform, more silver in circulation, and elimination of the gold standard. The Knights of Labor, the urban working class reform agency, call for the recognition of labor unions and an eight (8) hour work day.

The Populist reform movement raises some legitimate demands. However, the rural American farmers, the Populist, and the urban American workers, the Knights of Labor, the common man, wouldn’t and couldn’t join together to defeat the money elite during the period 1865 – 1900. We are lead to believe the reason no changes occur for the good of the common man is because of this factor.

The Populist, William Jennings Bryan, ran on the Democratic ticket for three elections. The Democrats lost all three elections. East versus West is the name of the game. Divide, conquer, and control is the method in use to keep the common man’s demands from becoming reality.
Years later the same reforms will finally be given to the common man, but by the Progressives, the Stewards of the rich.

The Progressive movement, controlled by the social elite, begins to emerge in 1901 with the death of President McKinley. Theodore Roosevelt emerges as the Steward of the people, bringing Conservationism and a New Nationalism. Roosevelt chose his successor to the Presidency, Howard Taft. Roosevelt got angry with Taft, when he is unable to control him. As a result, he breaks from the party and runs against him on a progressive ticket (the Bull Moose Party). William Jennings Bryan, the Populist, has little hope of winning as he is now running against an eastern Progressive Taft and a western Progressive Taft. This split leads to the election of Woodrow Wilson in the election of 1912 and a change in progressive measures from Conservationism and the New Nationalism of Roosevelt to the New Freedom of Wilson.

Wilson stresses individualism and state’s rights. “No one but the President,” he said, “seems to be expected . . . to look out for the general interest of the country.” He develops a program of progressive reform and asserts international leadership in building a new world order. In 1917 he proclaims American entrance into World War I, a crusade to make the world “safe for democracy.” Wilson maneuvers reform legislation through congress, the Underwood Tariff Act, 1913; attached to the measure is a graduated income tax, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1914. Wilson also gets passage of the Federal Reserve Act which provides for a more flexible money supply and the Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair business practices. Later legislation prohibits child labor, and establishes the eight (8) hour work day. Wilson’s action towards these reforms and the slogan, “he kept us out of war”, insures his re-election to office in 1916.

Did Wilson know and plan our entrance into the World War? Was the legislation he passes for the benefit of the common man or to get the common man’s support for him so that he can lead them to war for his purpose?

Wilson asserts his international leadership in building a new world order. In doing so, the Clayton Anti-trust Act of 1914 suspends and trade is given to big business to produce war materials and continues the big business spending into the 1920’s with military expenditures and exports. The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 drastically reduces tariffs on import goods allowing consumers low-cost goods, but the action proves invalid because in time of war there are no imports.

Shortly after Wilson’s re-election, he concludes that America cannot remain neutral in the world war. With congress’s concurrence, America declares war on Germany, swinging the pendulum of balance in favor of the Allies.
The Treaty of Versailles reflects the winner of the First World War’s attempt at a peace conference with everyone in attendance, but the loser; this is a big mistake. The main four (4) writers of the treaty are Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America; Lord George, Prime Minister of Britain; Orlando of Italy; and George Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France. The big three are no match for Woodrow Wilson who comes to the Treaty with his famous fourteen (14) points already written, but then again, Woodrow Wilson is no match for them; he comes to the conference with the attitude that he is the savior of the world, relinquishing his responsibilities of the Presidency in favor of this grand vision. The other big three are men of the world, ruthless, greedy, domineering, authoritarians with a stubborn revengeful streak. The personal traits of the big four exhibit greed, and /or a lack of foresight on their part concerning the Treaty of Versailles. Their attitude and actions will instill the spark of the Second World War in the treaty of the first.

The French, the Italians, and the English will not accept some of the fourteen (14) points Woodrow Wilson wrote and brings with him to the conference. Instead, they insist on excluding five (5) of the points promoting open diplomacy and then, to top it off, refuses the admittance of Germany, the loser, to the conference. The big three, George, Orlando, and Clemenceau force feed an additional paragraph to the end of the treaty. The guilt clause places all the blame and responsibility for the war on Germany, requiring Germany to pay 33 billion in restitution and only allows them a 100,000 man security force; it cannot fortify its boarders, and the rivers are to maintain a free status, whereas, anyone can use them, not just Germans.

No one bothers to get input from Germany or their side on any of the issues. As a result of the winner’s ignorance by disregarding the loser, by not including the loser in the peace conference, by not clearing up all the issues on both sides (the winner’s and the loser’s) and the treaty’s assigning guilt of the war solely on Germany, the treaty serves as the spark that will generate and unleash the Second World War some twenty years later.

Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America (a Democrat) not only makes the mistake of going to Paris for six months, leaving America without a President to guide it, but also fails to appoint an influential Republican to the American delegation at the peace conference at Paris. This is a critical error on his part. Wilson is so set on doing everything himself, and of getting all the credit for a peaceful resolution to the war, he fails to see he is in error with his totalitarian attitude. Wilson ignores the obvious. Although he is a brilliant historian and an intelligent man, Wilson is not strong enough to go up against men like George, Orlando, and Clemenceau. When President Wilson takes the treaty back to the United States to get the Senate to sign it, the Senate refuses, mainly because they had not been advised. Therefore, the U. S. officially stays at war with Germany until 1921, when congress puts some insignificant thing through that ultimately determines that no state of war exists. This is an embarrassment to Wilson.

The Treaty of Versailles births the League of Nations; the fore runner of the United Nations, a brain storm of Wilson’s which gives the nations of the world a method, a way, and a place to discuss its problems. The League of Nations will help to prevent wars by using reason as an alternative, gaining membership of all nations, except that of his own nation, the United States of America.

In conclusion, and in my opinion, our destiny was and is guided by diversion. Populism is a means of recognizing the need for reform in America, giving only a sense of hope for reforms, whereas Progressivism is actions taken by the Steward of the rich, the President, an approach to appeasing the masses with reforms that are only temporary measures that will prove worthless. The failures of the Treaty of Versailles may have been avoided and the Second World War prevented had President Wilson stayed at home, leaving the negotiation of the peace treaty to others who were more qualified in influencing and handling men like the big three. Had President Woodrow Wilson sent his famous fourteen (14) points to the conference with equal representation of the two main political parties in America in delegation, the out-come of the conference and the injustices of the Treaty of Versailles may have been avoided. The treaty as written in Versailles is the spark that ultimately brings on the Second World War and the rises of power in Germany of Adolph Hitler. Hitler uses the guilt excursion of the treaty as basic fuel for the buildup of emotions of the German people, an unsurpassed hatred which gives rise to the Nazi Party, the Third Reich, and the unheard of destruction and death that follows.

Rosenberg, Dr. Cerro Coso Community College (CCCC). Ridgecrest, California. History 17B. Summer 1990

Another Point of View

The following is an excerpt from a beautiful letter sent to the The Bible Based Ministries, South Africa.  The author is a black woman from the United States.  She presents another point of view:

.  .  .  As I read [your personal testimony], I could relate to many, many things that you wrote about; and I also marveled about certain similarities in our lives.  .  .  .  But although my race and gender is different from yours (I.e. I am a black woman); and the Lord converted me far later in life (age 35) than you; there were quite a few similarities that I could identify along with you. The first one being: coming out of that terribly destructive Charismatic Arminian error, losing friends along the way, and longing for fellowship amongst true believers who share the same desire to separate from the evils of worldliness and compromise…

For me it can be a particularly lonely walk from the standpoint that many people do not understand that when it comes to standing firmly on the side of Christ verses going the way of cultural “traditions” (so to speak) – I have to roundly reject “tradition” if it contradicts God’s clear teaching. This is because the Lord (in His amazing grace) has so deeply changed my heart to love and serve Him; and to see things much differently than ever before. Let me give you an example. Here in the USA, I know many blacks who claim to be Christian but who are supporting Obama just because of his skin color. The expectation is – I should be supporting him, too. But as a Christian there is no way I can support this man who is pro-abortion, pro-sodomy; not to mention his socialist/communist leanings, etc., etc., and other problems. In fact, Obama stayed in a church that was preaching Liberation Theology. It caused a huge controversy because of ugly statements his “pastor” made. Obama only left this “church” (which is filled with heresy and lies) because of political expediency. Clearly, by his fruit he’s not a true Christian – though he claims to be.

Another example is Martin Luther King, Jr. – whose real name was Michael King. I learned the shocking truth about this man a few years ago and there is no way I could “celebrate” his birthday or his memory or anything else. The things I found out about him were (and are!) so filthy. And (from what was documented in his own writings) King wasn’t at all a true Christian, as he denied almost every single foundational teaching of Christianity. Yet just because we share the same color (and because of the “civil rights” issues), many expect that I should overlook these things. Here in America it is like a “sacred cow” (if you will) to say anything against the “great” “Rev. Dr.” Martin Luther King, Jr.!! However, as a true believer I cannot in any way overlook who this man really was. As it is written in God’s Holy Word (in 2 Cor. 5:17), “Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.” This is so true!

Thank you for “Rehearsing What God Has Done.” The newsletter greatly encouraged me. Please know that I continue to pray for your country and the brethren in SA. I know there are many difficult things going on, particularly regarding the racial conditions in SA. These have not always been easy to read about. Still, I understand the truth must be expressed. As you said in one of your messages that I’m listening to right now, entitled “Zion, City of God” (referring to the verse in Jer. 13:23), it is not the color of the skin that matters. It is the condition of the heart that must be dealt with. The heart of depraved mankind is black with sin until the Lord so graciously and mercifully washes it “as white as snow” (Is. 1:18).

I am grateful that the Lord, in saving my soul and forgiving my sins, has not only given me a heart to love Him and serve Him; but He’s given me a brand new heart to love others (especially Christian brothers and sisters) regardless of their skin color. When I say love I am not talking about turning a blind eye to error and not addressing sin. I mean as believers the truth is (as it is written in Gal. 3:28): “There is neither Jew nor Greek…for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.” Yet sometimes people will abandon this verse when family ties or skin color or nationality or past history or tradition or other things are involved…

Meanwhile, I will pray along with you (as you wrote in your article entitled “Witchcraft and Crime in South Africa”) that the “Spirit of God can change the hearts of black South Africans.” In addition, I will pray that it would please the Lord to change the hearts of all kinds of men and women, who are in bondage to sin and Satan, regardless of their skin color so that they may believe on the Lord Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of their sins. Only God can do it…!

No way am I saying that the system of slavery in the USA (which was marked by brutality in many instances) was good. Not at all. Many terrible things were done. But it’s long been over with and it’s long been time to move on. So many blacks are still harping about slavery and/or racism as an excuse for almost every single problem in their lives; and/or for the problems among the races. The fact is many of the deep down problems have to do with the personal sin in their lives. As Christians we are called to “press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus” (Phil. 3:14); not whine or blame others for past hurts…

Again, thank you for such a beautiful 25th Anniversary edition. Please take care – you and your family. I pray that you are all well and safe.

United States