RECONSTRUCTION

By Trudy A. Martinez

According to The American College Dictionary to reconstruct means to construct again; to rebuild; make over. What happens in the South following the Civil War does not meet the definition of reconstruction.  It is only a means of pacifying the guilt of those who originally profit from the slave trade. The actions they take are calculating, necessary moves that prove profitable, once again, for the North, the rich, and the rising upper-middle-class, the bourgeoisie, allowing their entrance into Industrialization. It is a means of gain from the misfortune of the southerners, the poor whites, and the blacks; a means of appeasement; an influx of Hope; a road block to revolution.

History dictates, as long as there is Hope for a better future, the common people will accept the hard times and the struggle to obtain and improve their status. How else can the government justify its action of freeing the salves, while at the same time, breaking the promise of 40 acres and a mule? The blacks are left with nothing more than the Hope of achieving a better tomorrow at the mercy of their previous owners, the Southern Elite.

The Freedman Bureau, a token agency (backed by the government, influenced by the rich, but yet, limited), was expected to achieve the impossible. From the beginning, the bureau has three strikes against it; it offers only hope and token justice by controlling the impersonal forces that determine history. One can only wonder if this is why President Lincoln, the role model for the common man, lost his life. Was the President’s death also determined by of one of those impersonal forces upon history? Did Lincoln make his strategy for reconstruction of our torn country known to the wrong people? These are questions for which we may never find the answers? Violence and a strong middle-class objection always pave the way for change in America, that is, when the change does not benefit the rich and the upper-middle-class.

In America (the land of the free, the government of the people), freedom is never a problem, or is it? Does a government of the people mean all the people: the common people, the blacks too? In 1865, is freedom a myth?

Guilt and restitution for the sins of the past alone does not free the slaves; it is a combination of greed and the desire to follow the footsteps of our mother county, England, into the Industrial Revolution. The slave trade is not just a source of guilt, but also a hindrance to progress placed on society by the greed of the past Northern Elite. The slaves only need to be free, no longer owned like cattle or a piece of property. What happens to the slaves after they are free is of no real concern to the Northern elite. True freedom is a luxury of the rich; one can only acquire freedom through status, prestige, or money; it is not a common man’s commodity.

Look at our past, the evidence is there. Our government is not a government of the people, at least not the common people, as the government wants us to believe; instead we are a government of the rich, the prestigious, the corrupt, the greedy, and the bourgeoisie. Our government is governed by the desires and whims of the rich. The common people are not a concern of the government until their Hope begins to fade; threats of revolution are in evidence by violence, loss of lives, and the voice of the middle-class objections are heard loud and clear.

Our sense of Nationalistic thinking begins with the birth of our flag, the red, white, and blue, signifying the blood, sweat, and tears of our fore fathers who win freedom from our mother country, England; they establish our Constitutional government, our Republic, by which the freedom of all the people are insured and protected. With this Nationalistic thinking, the common people are programmed to think they are unique, free, equal, and that truth and justice prevail; they are one nation, with a common goal. That thinking remains true until the north desires to enter venture into the industrialization of America. Then our common goal is obliterated.

The South didn’t cooperate. The South didn’t want to progress; it was enjoying all the advantages of slavery; it didn’t want to change; its goals differ. The violence of the Civil War is necessary before change can occur to achieve the desires of the Northern rich, to progress, to go forward, and to increase their wealth. The rich control the government; they want change only if it is beneficial to them, not when they pay a cost. The Civil War is a disagreement between the Southern rich and the Northern rich. In America, the rich grow richer at the expense of the poor, the working class, the common man, and the ethnic groups. The more blood, sweat, and tears the common man sheds, the wealthier the rich become. With the emancipation of the slaves, the Northern rich can induce the government into establishing a (forced) public education system. This education of the masses is a necessity for progress (if Industrialization is to occur) and for the rich to prosper from it.

When it becomes evident the common people are more than eager to learn, not only does education need controls, but also limits to and for those segments of society that are to become the working class of the Industrialization. The schools brain-wash the minds of the people by increasing the Nationalistic theme, i.e., to become one, together, with one goal, to increase the wealth of the nation, to build on the American Dream (the programmed dream: as long as we try, work hard; we will get ahead), a new article of faith, a myth. The owners of the means of production and progress keep it that way (a myth) by resisting payment of the true value of labor and by not sharing the wealth with those who make it possible for them to obtain it.

The Industrialization of America is a boom for the rich. They justify their mistreatment of the working class, depriving them of the fruits of their labor, through the practice and acceptance of Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest).

The American government, the government of the people, during times of trouble, during hard times, turns its back on the needs of the common people, the working classes, i.e., the poor whites, the blacks, the Hispanics, the women, and the children. While simultaneously denying the acceptance and practice of the theories of Darwinism, the government allows the unjust practices of industry whose roots are in the theories of Social Darwinism. Why? Because, the theories and practice of “Social Darwinism” allow for a natural selection of the fittest, justifying the actions of the rich by allowing them to capitalize at the expense of the working class, the common people. Masses of wealth accumulate, as a result. So much wealth accumulates that the rich find it necessary to plan their next greedy step into what they refer to as progress, Imperialism.

In conclusion and in my opinion, to reconstitute the government would have been better solutions in 1865, i.e., reconstruct the government, not just the South, but the North as well. The radicals could have gotten the backing of the masses, but fear stood in their way. Fear of revolution like the one unleashed in France in the year 1797. The radicals chose compromise at the expense and suffering of all future generations instead of facing the enviable, the necessity of change, i.e., of defining “freedom”, of defining “the government of the people” and achieving a real government of the people, the common people, all the people. Through the ending of injustice, invoking controls on the greedy, forcing “the owners of the means of production” to pay the true value of the labor and thereby, alleviating the unnecessary blood, sweat, and tears of the working classes, the aim of a government for all the people may achieve. One can only envision the outcome of what such a change might mean to America, i.e., utopia, little or no unemployment, rapid growth, and increased stability, a sense of pride surpassing the Nationalistic theme that gives a sense of false pride and of false reality.

Regardless, America achieves what no other country has ever accomplished: We remain strong and resolute irrespective of our faults. And we will continue to do so as long as we have Hope.

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An Interpretation of History based on the Novel The Beautiful and Damned by F. Scott Fitzgerald and an essay: The Fact of the Force

 By Trudy A. Martinez

The Beautiful and Damned, a novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald who succumbs to alcoholism as an escape from his reality, the reality of his transgressions, and writes this book in restitution and as a release from his own pain of realization (so it is believed). The main characters in his novel suffer from a similar reality of transgression as they struggle down different paths towards achievement of their dreams of materialism.

In the end, they achieve it; or they struggle, experiencing hardships, tribulations, ruthless misery, loneliness, and then rewards of satisfaction and self-worth without succumbing to the materialism they desperately seek in the beginning.

The book centers around a young twenty-five (25) year old man, Anthony Patch, a Harvard graduate in the state of sublimity, who thinks of himself in the highest esteem with greatness as a destiny, and inherit wealth, a money aristocracy, gained through the achievements of his grandfather. Anthony is the grandson of Adam J. Patch, known as “Cross Patch”, a man who went from rags to riches playing the stock market on Wall Street, accumulating seventy-five million dollars and a guilty conscience. Although Fitzgerald begins the story in 1913, the actual plot begins in the year 1861 with the grandfather who works his way through the new impersonal forces of a nation destined to turn into a capitalistic society and damnation to some.

The grandfather comes to the realization of his transgressions and seeks restitution through reforms, but yet, he begins to force feed his morality and values upon Adam, his grandson, just as he was force feed in 1861 by the new society. Adam’s grandfather uses criticism as a tool molding Adam, I. e., conditioning through the practice of behaviorism; introducing patriotism through inducement to write about the war effort; stressing individualism through emphasis away from oneness towards sameness by restricting free will; producing optimism through the establishment of inheritance, a reward for progress which ultimately produces materialism as a symbol of acceptance. The Stewards of the system, the Presidents are guardians for the rich; they insure the stability of the system through reforms and through necessary changes, amendments to the constitution to induce gratification; to protect property; to protect individual rights; to regulate industry; to investigate deviations and corruption; and to monitor aggressors; and progress, and monetary rewards.

Adam J. Patch, Anthony’s grandfather, who in 1861 joins the war effort, a Union Calvary regiment in the Civil war, advances in rank to a major. Upon his return from the war, Adam sees opportunity for gain; he joins the speculators on Wall Street, the rich, the social elite, in the buying and selling of stock in their new religion, capitalism. “Cross Patch” converts; he gains much ill will, attempting to rub elbows with the rich. While at the same time, another segment of society (others of his own caliber) cheers and applauds as they also join the new aristocracy, the money elite, in their flight upward through the “Impersonal Forces”. Adam’s journey begins with his introduction to Nationalism through his Patriotism and taking up of arms to fight for the Union cause; he replaces his values, his uniqueness, his oneness, and his “love of man” in individualism for a false sense of “oneness”, i.e., “sameness”, a partnership, in all endeavors, in work, and later in marriage. In the Civil war, he fights for a false freedom, the end of slavery, the emancipation of the blacks.

A new freedom guaranteed through the constitution, the bible of the social elite, now expands to include Capitalism which differs slightly from the original views of the fore fathers of America. Through Optimism, his hope for a better tomorrow establishes his desires; his achievement reassure his dream. Adam sees through progress of industrialization he can subordinate the Impersonal Forces to guide him to the new ultimate destiny, Capitalism, the temple of the rich, and a new aristocracy of the money elite. As a reward for his progress he gains Materialism, a symbol of acceptance, progressivism, and a new Article of Faith. He hears the common man’s cry of despair, and turns his back on their voice of Hope which introduces through Populism and progressivism an alternative to struggle through Socialism. The new aristocracy recognizes the introduction of Marxism as an artificial retaliation to Capitalism with no merit, no method of application, or any real threat. The common man’s dilemma justifies itself through the theory and practice of Social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer’s economic and social application of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, “Survival of the Fittest” which upholds the Paternalism of The Gospel of Wealth, Carnegies’ contribution, and the form of slavery so nice to society and murderous to the common man. To give in to the common man’s cry will be an injustice and against their “god’s” will for only the “chosen” are to survive the living hell of their existence.

“Cross Patch” did not suffer, he rose to the temple, but yet, falls; succumbs to the reality of his transgressions as he seeks escape through Alcoholism. Illness besets him; sclerosis redeems him to consecration of his past. “He becomes a reformer of reformers.” As a means of restitution, he attacks the escape mechanisms of despair for which he himself resorts; the deceitful decay of his values damns him to obligatory obscurity.

When Anthony’s grandfather marries, he marries well into a social acceptable family; his marriage bares him a son, Adam Ulysses Patch, Anthony’s father. Adam Ulysses Patch grows-up dull, an overrated, superficial, selfish man, and a continuation of Adam Patch himself. Ulysses marries a Boston socialite; the marriage produces one child, Anthony. When Anthony is five years old, his mother dies. Anthony and his father, Adam Ulysses Patch, go to live with his grandfather, Adam J. Patch.

Anthony gets continual empty and unfulfilled promises of togetherness, leaving him disillusioned because his father’s promise of tomorrow never comes. When his father finally follows through with a promise and takes Anthony on a trip abroad, he dies suddenly, leaving Anthony in a panic of despair. Anthony’s impressionable childhood years, five through eleven fills his life with death and despair. He lost both parents and his grandmother. As a diversion to his grief and a struggle against death, Anthony withdraws, indulges nearly his whole existence into an uncontrollable hobby of stamp collecting, his childhood escape from the reality of his meaningless existence. Anthony never feels nurture or love with both a paternal (conditional) and maternal (unconditional) balance in his life.

“He [lives] almost entirely within himself, an inarticulate boy, thoroughly un-American, and politely bewildered by his contemporaries.”

While schooling abroad a tutor successfully convinces Anthony to go to Harvard, as it will open doors for him, earn him friends, and social acceptance. So Anthony does, he goes to Harvard. After graduation at the age of twenty, he returns to Rome, and acquires culture. Anthony’s shyness as a result of his childhood conditioning and childhood withdrawal hinders him and dictates his conduct for the balance of his life.

Anthony returns to America in 1912 after learning of his grandfather’s illness, sclerosis. In America, he finds himself amidst the feverish election of 1912 which offers too many choices, i.e., William Howard Taft, the President, a Republican, is caught in intense battles between the progressives and conservatives; the progressive on-slaughter produces a split in the Republican Party when Theodore Roosevelt, a Progressive, bolts to lead the Progressives on the Bull Moose platform of his “New Nationalism, “which highlights conservationism; William Jennings Bryan, a Democrat and Populist, now faces an opposition with an eastern progressive Taft and a western progressive Taft in addition to a conservative Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, whose program of a “New Freedom” based on individualism and states’ rights. The break in the Republican Party soon ensures the election of Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, with his “New Freedom” policy to the White House and the Presidency with William Jennings Bryan as his Vice-President.

Anthony deserts his plans to live abroad; he decides to resign himself from his personal ambitions until after his grandfather’s death. Adam dreams of the day his grandfather will die, so he can inherit his fortune and live a life of luxury. Adam didn’t work, never worked, and did not intend to work; his income comes from interest on money he inherits from his mother. He contemplates writing as a career, but isn’t able to commit a single line to paper. Someday, someday, someday, never today; always tomorrow, empty devastating promises; just as his father conditioned him through behaviorism. Anthony continually finds incommoding escapes from reality.

Anthony is the recipient of negative, critical observations of his Grandfather’s scrutiny. Everything about Anthony’s life is pre-ordained through the conditioning of hereditary compromise, “Damned.” His “hope” and dream of writing about the middle ages are met with asperity by his grandfather, leaving him with a sense of despondency. Adam Patch lives his life voluptuously a legacy for which Anthony’s vanity is damned.

Anthony imagines:

“himself in Congress rooting around in the litter of that incredible pigsty with the narrow and porcine brows he saw pictured sometimes in the rotogravure sections of Sunday newspapers, those glorified proletarians babbling blandly to the nation the ideas of high school seniors! Little men with copy-book ambitions who by mediocrity had thought to emerge from mediocrity into the lusterless and unromantic heaven of a government of the people—and the best, the dozen shrewd men at the top, egotistic and cynical, were content to lead this choir of white ties and collar-buttons in a discordant and amazing hymn, compounded of a vague confusion between wealth as a reward of virtue and wealth as a proof of vice, and continued cheers for God, the Constitution, and the Rocky Mountains!”

Anthony begins to look for something beautiful in life, something or someone who will help bring him out of disparity. When Anthony meets Gloria Gilbert, the most beautiful woman he has ever seen, who shares the same dreams and the same escapes, he falls passionately in love, and soon marries her. The minister who marries them takes on the air of bourgeois with flashy gold teeth. Both Anthony and Gloria share the same dream, the dream of the day they will be filthy rich. Once they marry, they share their dream as if in partnership; the dream is their future, that triumphant day when Adam Patch dies; they find endless ways of relieving their boredom while they wait to inherit luxury by spending money way above Anthony’s income; and they even purchase an automobile in the fury of materialism sweeping the capitalistic society of America. Anthony and Gloria sink deeper and deeper into the escape mechanisms, using the sensationalism stirring the country as an excuse for their excessive indulgence. They have nothing except the stench of liquor and cigarettes to show for the money spent. They eat, drink, and make merry, while running from their own existence; they contemplate the death of Adam’s grandfather and the celebration of life thereafter as successors to his wealth. The hedonic nature of their existence, their devotion to happiness and gratification full of pleasure, which clouds their succulent dream of riches, is their goal.

In the year 1913, the Progressive Movement blooms; President Wilson maneuvers major legislation through congress, the Underwood Act to lower tariffs and its attachment, a graduated income tax; and the Federal Reserve Act to provide elasticity to the money supply.

War breaks out in Europe, growing into a World War. World War I stimulates the American economy through trade with war filled countries. Woodrow Wilson, the President of the United States, manages to keep America out of the war, while at the same time tending to some of the restitution of guilt for the money and social elite through progressive reform legislation. In 1914 an antitrust legislation establishes a Federal Trade commission to prohibit unfair business practices. Then in 1916, another burst of legislation brings new laws which prohibit child labor and limit railroad workers to an eight-hour day. Because President Wilson’s hard work produces those and other reforms and the slogan, “he kept us out of war,” Wilson narrowly wins the 1916 presidential race and reelection to the office of the Presidency. Up till this time, government protects business over an individual (religion became a business, and corporations consider themselves individuals under the constitution). It appears to the public as if the individual, the common man, is finally becoming a protected concern of the government.

Criticism enters Anthony and Gloria’s relationship, criticism of others and each other. They travel and squander money on endless drunken parties. Anthony attempts to work, but finds self-assurance and opportunism wins out over technical knowledge in Capitalistic America, so he resigns. With no ambition, but he continually attempts to please his grandfather.

“Anthony completed a Chestertonian essay on the twelfth century by way of introduction to his proposed book.”

An essay, Anthony’s grandfather will never admit to reading. He suggests Anthony write about the Germans, offers to pay expenses, that is, as long as he conforms to his grandfather’s values. Anthony’s grandfather objects to Anthony’s curiosity and need to write about the era of the “Dark Ages”? Is there a secret in this period of history that will reveal a mystery of mankind that some men want to be kept a secret?

At one of their drunken parties Maury gives his thinking on some secrets, but “Maury’s adaptation left his friend disappointed and Gloria had shown her disinterest by falling asleep.” Then again at a later date, Anthony and Gloria join friends and a drunken party ensues. Adam Patch, who that very day gives funds to help the national cause of prohibition, decides to disinherit Anthony (without Anthony’s knowledge) after an abrupt unannounced and unexpected visit to see Anthony and Gloria at their summer home. He appalls at the sight of a wild drunken party in progress; he condemns Anthony because of the unrighteous way he is pursuing life. A lifestyle he also employs in his youth.

Both Anthony and Gloria are in a state of panic from the realization of his grandfather’s visit. They ponder ways to make up with his grandfather with righteousness. All attempts fail. They move back to New York City, where they find inflation accelerates the cost of an apartment to above one-third of their income; their income dwindles. Anthony continues to seek restitution and forgiveness from his grandfather, but is kept from his grandfather’s sight.

When Adam Patch dies, all the newspapers relish in the opportunity to tell of his riches and dream of industrialism using tainted propaganda (they avoid mentioning Adam’s attempts to make restitution for the error of his ways through the reforms he sponsors and finances). When Anthony discovers to his dismay, he is not mentioned in the will of his grandfather, he decides to contest the will. The newspapers have a heyday when the terms of the will are made public and also print items concerning Anthony’s suit. Rumors run amuck and Anthony becomes bitter. Anthony’s bitterness increases as he is reminded of the cruelty of life with the death of a proud man, who dies from the indirect actions of some young thugs; a man who obviously got caught up in the Impersonal forces and reduced to a job beneath his stature, the job of a janitor in the building where Anthony lives. When Gloria gets an inheritance after the death of her mother, Anthony learns her beliefs differ from his and he and Gloria begins to argue more and more as they both begin to sink further and further into obscurity. All Anthony’s attempts to becoming a successful writer fail. They again live for today. The beautiful Gloria enters the glamorous motion picture industry as an illumination of her beauty against Anthony’s wishes. Their animosity for each other grows and so does their criticism.

The British intercept and communicate to Washington, D.C., A secret order, the Zimmermann notes, which instructs the German foreign minister to invite Mexico and Japan to join the Central power, (if the United States joins the war effort) and offers the booty of lost lands in the southwest to Mexico as an enticement. Wilson publicized the Zimmermann note to win votes for his proposal of arming American merchant ships and employ other means necessary to protect American vessels and citizens at sea. Wilson states, “No one was immune from the German aggression”. Journalism assists Wilson; they cry and shout hysterically about the evil morals, philosophy, and music of the Teutonic characteristics of Germany, stirring up the American people to correct the world situation and go to the aid of England and France, who are on the side of God, in their fight for glory.

Then on April 2, 1917, Woodrow Wilson reverses his previous stanch of emphasis on the individual when the United States of America declares war on Germany and enters the war on the side of the Allies. All meaningful legislation Wilson maneuvers through congress suddenly become obsolete, e.g., the Underwood Act which lowers tariffs on imports is now useless as in time of war there are no imports; the Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair business practices is worthless as the government contracts with big business (exclude small business) for urgently needed war materials.

America’s interest in the First World War begins with an increase Nationalism in 1898, when America declares war on Spain. The Spanish-American War is the signal of America’s entrance into “Imperialism”. The culmination of Nationalism and Imperialism are the indirect cause of America’s entrance into the First World War and of the World War itself. The question to the President and to the congress from big business investors who invest heavily through-out the world and especially in England, our mother country, is: “How [can] America remain isolated in foreign affairs when Americans [stands] to lose so much?”

With the end of the American Revolution, Quincey Adams, then President of the United States, took America into Isolationism for the purpose of staying out of foreign affairs and European wars. Woodrow Wilson, on the other hand, wants to end the Isolation of America and involve America in foreign affairs for the purpose of greedy Imperialist who plan America’s entrance into the First World War. Woodrow Wilson becomes their partner in this endeavor; he is a very clever man, who thinks “God” ordains him. He pursues the “Politics of Morality”. He is a southern white Presbyterian, who is out to save America and is now out to save the world.

The best and the brightest, the aristocrats, the alumni of three or four Eastern colleges, join the war efforts by applying for officer school. Anthony, however, is determined to be unfit for service as his ideals are un-American. West Point emerges. The propaganda of journalism guides Americans causing a sudden shift in attitudes. Everything is glorious, every race, (except the German race) is a great race. The previous outcasts and scapegoats now join the armed forces and are forgiven. Patriotic citizens favor the arm forces with alcoholic drinks all across America.

The sign of the times adds to Anthony’s disparity. When Anthony receives word the jury bases its decision on the immorality of his lifestyle, the verdict they deliver favors the testator; Anthony reciprocates by appealing the decision as he feels the fortune is his birthright.

Government institutes the selective service act which includes all qualified men regardless of social position.

“All males between the age of 21 and 30 were ordered to personally appear at their polling place in the Election District in which they reside.”

The purpose of appearance is to register for the draft. The war effort produces two million volunteers and three million draftees. This allows Anthony to enter the war as a private with no mention of the previous reason for his exclusion as an officer. Anthony, an aristocrat by birth right, is destined to rub elbows with the lower classes, to see the growing dissension first hand and the impersonal forces at work, the behaviorism tactics thrust upon the men with the malice of school boys, the odd and playful fancy of all army administration, the stressing secession of immeasurable detail, the indignity of the common man’s position, the breaking of man’s spirit, the changing of values, the fears, the disappointments, the hate, the lies, the regret, the emotional unstable war.

It is too late, he is no longer an individual; he is a puppet, lacking the ability to make a decisions on his own. Anthony moves from one disparity to another, doubt is born; he is nervous, irritable, afraid, and angry at the world. It is then he makes a fatal error in judgment; he lies and suffers the consequences as he sinks deeper into depression and a drunken daze. His punishment, confinement; Anthony is going mad; he feels a sense of terror, a fearsome ménage of horror. He exhausts himself and becomes ill with his release from confinement.

“He was aware that his illness was providential. It saved him from a hysterical relapse.”

Mail from Gloria requires his attention as Anthony and Gloria grew further and further apart. The war is near an end. Anthony did not leave the states; his imprisonment at Camp Mills is an enigma. The camp is under quarantine from influenza; it is a filthy, windswept, cold, dreary muddle, a breeding place for disease. When word comes the enemy, Germany, is ready to surrender. West Pointers become angry because the war is going to stop before they get a chance to go overseas. Then suddenly the war appears over and Anthony is on his way home to New York to Gloria. There is a celebration in the air; people are drunk with happiness and alcohol.

Gloria’s life apart from Anthony brings her to the realization her once close friends are not really friends, but mere acquaintances, selfish and unfulfilling. Her own morals diminish. Anthony is a stranger to her, someone from her distant past. She is filled with memories and with regret for not living her life differently, for not succumbing to her birthright of motherhood. But now she is faced with Anthony and the possibility of fulfilling a mutual dream of being filthy rich. Things change, prices highly inflate; their income dwindles further; the stocks drop, and their investments are not paying; they both sink into disparity and engulf in parties and alcohol again. Their life is like a yo-yo, up, down, up, down. Anthony (in need) takes the job of a salesman, selling stock to those who cannot afford them; he is destined to failure. Their dollars shrink not only in amount, but also in purchasing power.

As the need for war materials end, America is suddenly sent backward. President Wilson travels abroad to Paris, France, leaving his responsibility and legacy of the Presidency and the American people behind. He is greeted as no other ever was greeted, he thinks, as the “savior” of the world. Wilson comes equipped with his famous fourteen points to bring peace to the world, a way to end all wars, through application of the fourteenth point, the League of Nations. The League of Nations allows reason to prevail in settlement of the problems of the world. There is evidence of starvation on the streets of Europe; the swollen stomachs of young children also suggest malnutrition. President Wilson is no match for the other three great powers at the peace conference. Britain’s Lord George, France’s George Clemenceau, and Italy’s Orlando are ruthless, greedy, domineering, authoritarians with stubborn revengeful streaks: their deceitful pride does not allow Germany, the loser of the war, to sit in the conference for peaceful resolutions. A big mistake, a mistake that will cost the world greater destruction; it will spark the attitudes and actions of those responsible for the “Treaty of Versailles”. Woodrow Wilson makes grave errors as the President of the United States, he listens to the money elite, he leaves America unguided for six months, he fails to appoint an influential Republican to the America delegation at the peace conference, and he thinks of himself as the “savior” of the world which leaves him vulnerable to his fate. Getting ill in Paris forces him to trust others and forces him to compromise beyond his original beliefs. When Wilson returns home, he faces unbearable world embarrassment as the Senate will not sign nor recognize his achievements, the “Treaty of Versailles” and the fourteenth point, the League of Nations. The President succumbs to his fate and collapses, leaving America to the wolves and his second wife.

Rapid growing unemployment emerges at the end of the war and the American attitude suddenly changes; they are disillusioned, alienated, and feel abandoned. The working class, the common man, is disciplined as strikes break out all over America and businesses refuse to cooperate with the need and the demands for higher wages. Investment and get rich quick schemes flourish. Old prejudices arise once again; organizations like the Ku Klux Klan and the NAACP emerge working against each other when needs of dissention are planted by big business and journalism, thus resulting in race riots. Prohibition brings more drinking.

“To have liquor was a boast, almost a badge of respectability.”

The Jazz age blossoms, a “live for today” attitude, a form protest of the times, and age of nonconformity and dissent, allowing sexual permissiveness to lead to a decline in morals in urban America. Big business and Journalism produce a Red Scare that drives an unjustified fear into the hearts of the common people. The Red Scare is brought on by the fears of big business of the new communist party, a combination of Marxist-Lenin theory which arises out of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and sends chills down the backs of the capitalistic business world. Lenin believes only revolution throughout the world will bring about the culmination of Marx’s theory of the Dialectic, communism, and Lenin’s theory of implementation through force. Lenin says to the communist people, “We must send professionals, professional revolutionaries, through-out the world and make it happen”. Take over the world from the owners of the means of production, the Capitalist. When Journalism capitalizes using propaganda to influence the people of America against such notions, the result is the “Red Scare”. The propaganda of Journalism causes man to go against his neighbor, his friends, snitching becomes an everyday practice, and the feeling that no one can be trusted begins to take over society. America has been censored, and it is back to Isolationism, dramatic plays get labels of pornography and art leads to extreme reactions of delight or discuss.

The Federal Bureau of Investigations, the FBI, is established to investigate suspect aliens and radicals under the strenuous, inhumane campaign of Attorney General Palmer. Hundreds of Russians who are not guilty of any crimes, nor communists, get deported; six thousand people, mostly American citizens, are arrested (prompted by suspicion) and taken from their homes without cause, warrants, or justification, and then held against their will. There is no evidence of a communist plot, but few Americans speak out because of the false illusion journalism makes. Palmer continues to send false messages of fear to the American people, causing mass hysteria, coupled with the fear of an unknown. The government allows the Attorney General to violate the constitutional rights of thousands of Americans under a false pretext of a revolution, a fear of communism, an unjust fear, that starts with business, the owners of the means of production, as a method to prevent revolution as they know their oppression of the working class is unjust and can result in revolution with the help of the communist. The remembrance of the historical French Revolution is still fresh in the mind of the greedy capitalist.

It is back to “Isolationism” when Warren G. Harding wins the election of 1920. He is a weak man who uses pompous phrases with no definite appeal, who “looked like a President”, who likes the taste of whiskey, and who lets the machine bosses set the policies.

“By 1923 the post war depression seemed to be giving way to a new surge of prosperity,–‘less government in business and more business in government’”. “Advantages rather than responsibility were also the goal of the representative of business and finance who shaped the domestic policies of the Harding Administration.”

Harding’s soap box approach gives way to a bubble that bursts by dirt of a scandal, the Teapot Dome Scandal, which is conveniently withheld from the public until the day after his questionable death.

Sigmund (Sex) Freud, the Jewish German, introduces his Freudian theory of the Libido, the ego, superego and the Id, the selfishness of man, the “I want” struggle of the conscious and the unconscious mind for the pleasure and gratification, a theory that becomes his passport out of Germany at the onset of World War II, his escape from death at the hands of the fascist movement of Adolph Hitler who rises out of a quilt filled Germany to bring destruction and death to the world as restitution for their transgressions against Germany, the superior race. Freudianism gives rise to Narcissism as an explanation for the common man’s dilemma. The Freudian theory, based on the Capitalistic society, reaffirms and conveniently compliments “Capitalism. In actuality man’s narcissism is a direct result of the Capitalistic society replacing the values of man from “Oneness with God” and “Oneness with Man” to “Sameness”, a concept of partnership, in marriage, in work, in all endeavors, giving man Materialism, Narcissism, Alcoholism, Sexism, Darwinism, and justifying the “Paternalism” of the Capitalistic societies Gospel of Wealth, the form of slavery that is so nice to society and murderous to the common man.

Gloria’s self-esteem declines abruptly into paranoia as she realizes her beauty and freshness is fading and is replaced with wrinkles. Along with Gloria’s beauty, her love for Anthony also fades, but she stays faithfully by him in their partnership of marriage even as he sinks deeper and deeper into his alcoholic escape. They still share the same dream of riches.

When the dream comes to be reality and Anthony recovers the family fortune by winning the lawsuit, Adam Patch’s estate, the legacy of Anthony’s birthright, it appears to be too late for Anthony, he appears beaten, and he withdraws once again to his childhood obsession. Had Anthony’s victory come too late? Was his victory now his damnation? There is no turning back. If Anthony was given his grandfather’s estate without a fight, his reaction may have differed; he may have succumbed to materialism. But now all Anthony can do is reminisce, to look back on his hardships, his tribulations, his ruthless misery, his loneliness, and his justification in obtaining his birth right, an autocracy. He is no longer materialistic in his thinking.

“Great tears stood in his eyes, and his voice was tremulous as he whispered to himself. “I showed them,” she was saying. “It was a hard fight, but I didn’t give up and I came through!”

What then is his gain? Is not the advantage of a money autocracy, a form of materialism and Anthony’s gain? Anthony diverts the Impersonal Forces and takes responsibilities for his own life. He does this without succumbing to Materialism. It is not for us to judge Anthony. Anthony’s “hope”, his optimism, is his inheritance; he gains satisfaction when he gains his birthright, his inheritance. Anthony’s previous actions reflect the mood and the atmosphere of the post war era of World War I. The post war era of World War I and World War II differ.

“Franklin D. Roosevelt assuming the Presidency at the depth of the Great Depression helped the American people regain faith in themselves. He brought hope as he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, ‘the only thing we have to fear is fear itself’.”

Approximately three months after Roosevelt is elected to the Presidency, America sinks to its lowest point in the Great Depression. Thirteen Million people are unemployed and almost every bank closes. Roosevelt is a man of action destined to reestablish the faith in Capitalism.

“In the first ‘hundred days’, he proposed, and congress enacted, a sweeping program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to losing farms and homes, and reform, especially through the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority.”

Businessmen and bankers fear the actions of Roosevelt and dislike the Nation being taken off the gold standard, the deficit budget, and the concessions made to labor. Businessmen and bankers are unwilling to pay for the changes, but they reaped the rewards through Materialism and want to keep them. Roosevelt is a man of action and knows these actions are necessary to prevent a possible revolution from within with the growing unrest of the middle classes; he responds with new programs of reform:

“Social Security, heavier taxes on the wealthy, new controls over banks and public utilities, and an enormous work relief program for the unemployed.” ‘In 1936 he was re-elect —-he sought legislation to enlarge the Supreme Court, which had been invalidation key New Deal measures. Roosevelt lost the Supreme Court battle, but a revolution in constitutional law took place. Thereafter the government could legally regulate the economy.”

Roosevelt pledges a “good neighbor” policy against aggressors in the Western hemisphere which transform the Monroe Doctrine, a doctrine America now feels they have the strength to protect. Roosevelt seeks to keep America out of the European wars while pledging to help nations that are under threat or attack. America is to remain neutral? How can America remain neutral and follow the contradicting policies put into effect? The President is given power to implement embargoes that threaten or attack other nations. Problems arise all over Europe. Japan becomes aggressive again and Germany unifies under their fascist leader, Adolph Hitler. The French fall to Germany’s aggression. Aid short of war is the policy of foreign affairs in America. With this attitude, war is inevitable.

Through Roosevelt, America helps to strengthen the countries that will eventually retaliate against it because America suddenly becomes unable to defend the Monroe Doctrine as Roosevelt pledges. The Philippines, America’s stepping stone to Asia, is in jeopardy to Japan. Roosevelt feels the salvation of the world peace will ultimately depend upon the relations between opposites, i.e., Russia, the communist, and the United States, the capitalist. Therefore, he devotes his energies to the planning of the United Nations, the afterbirth of Wilson’s fourteenth point.

When Japan retaliated against America redirected into global warfare. Internally the American political machine  retaliated the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, by focusing America’s efforts  upon citizens of Japanese descent, removing them from their homes against their free will into what is referred to as protective custody, imprisonment, stripping them of their due rights as Americans; rights guaranteed them by the Constitution. In times of war Americans have no rights. Roosevelt’s health deteriorates. He dies in 1945 just prior to the close of the war, Harry Truman, Roosevelt’s successor, is not informed of the developments and difficulties of the wartime problems that suddenly come to be his problems to solve. He tells reporters:

“I felt like the moon, the star, and all the planets had fallen on me.”

During World War II he headed the Senate war investigating committee, checking into waste and corruption and saving perhaps as much as fifteen billion dollars.

As President, Truman faces crucial decisions. At first he follows Roosevelt policies, policies which damn America into becoming a police state for the correction of world unrest, pledging the lives of Americans to solve world problems while at the same time ignoring the suffering needs of Americans at home; he witnesses the signing of the United Nations charter. But it isn’t long before he develops his own policies.

“He presented to Congress a 21-point program, proposing the expansion of Social Security, a full employment program, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, public housing and slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote, ‘symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of President to my own right.’ It became known as the Fair Deal.”

Truman retaliated against Japan after sending a warning shot of fear into the world and bringing the world to a peaceful means of communications, the coalition of the United Nations and the entrance of America into a Cold War, a military dominated complex. Truman campaigns successfully in 1948 against Dewy, the same man who tells the Spanish governor to get out of the Philippines when America declares war on Spain and helps allow American big business to take its first greedy step into Imperialism. With Truman as President, America does not revert back into Isolationism as it did during post World War I; instead, America pursues the “Truman Doctrine”, the Marshall Plan which stimulates economic recovery in war-torn Western Europe. Truman takes the stanch to fight against aggression rather than feed and nourish it. He negotiates a military alliance to protect Western nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. When postwar antagonism utilizes aggression to bring about communism in Korea, America along with the United Nations holds a line above the old boundary keeping the war a limited one.

When Truman gives his address to the nation in 1948, he states his views outright:

“We have rejected the discredited theory that the fortunes of the nation should be in the hand of a privileged few, instead, we believe that our economic system should rest on a democratic foundation and that wealth should be credited for the benefit of all. The recent election shows that the American people are in favor of this kind of society. Every segment of our population and every individual has a right to expect from his government a fair deal.”

Truman meets with opposition from business and congress in implementing his strategies; he wins some, and loses some. Truman seeks a “war against world poverty”, but is hindered by business and congress from achieving the same justice for all the American people. Truman also meets with opposition in his efforts in Korea from the military. General McCarthy voices opposition to Truman by making allegations. The Tyding Committee declares McCarthy works a “fraud and a hoax”, but the backlash of the Korea war gives McCarthy an audience which produces another Red Scare sending school children under their desks in fear of atomic bombs; these scare tactics continue in force until 1953, but are not held with the severity as they are in the previous scare of 1919:

“Slander, lies, character assassinations—these things are a threat to every single citizen everywhere in this country. When even one American—who has done nothing wrong—is forced by fear to shut his mind and close his mouth, then all Americans are in peril.”

How is true justice to prevail in America when men like Truman, who fight for the individual, are made to look silly under the false threats of communism brought on by the fear of business paying their fair share of wars which are of their making and for their profit or prevention of losses in their Materialism? Truman is a man of the people who fights for legislation and reforms that help the common man. Under Truman the common man is not reduced to the bread lines with the severity of oppression from big business as they are in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Truman listens to what the people say and makes his intention know to follow the designs of America people, when Eisenhower is elected President in 1952, he plays along with the game of politics, but in his farewell address he seeks restitution and warns America of things to come:

“The conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence—economic, political, even spiritual—is felt in every city, every State house, and every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need of this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved, so is the very structure of our society.

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisitions of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted . . . Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial military posture, has been the technical revolution during recent decades . . . The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present—and is gravely to be regarded. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we would, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy would itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite (January 17, 1961).”

In conclusion, the Steward of the rich, the President, is merely a guardian for the rich, whose policies differ from guardian to guardian, giving only the minimum amount of change or adjustment to prevent revolution and establish “hope” or reestablish faith in the system. There is but one exception, Harry S. Truman who becomes the President because of the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Truman’s administration during the postwar era of World War II brings changes to the American society, helps the common man, through establishment and revisal of reforms, thus preventing or attacking the abuse, massive oppression, discrimination, and fears that were felt by the common man and the middle class in America at the hands of big business and government in the post-World War I era under Harding.

And in my opinion, the Capitalistic Society is a nation whose processes, rewards, and acceptance through Materialism can be the damnation to one’s soul if an individual chooses the wrong path upward through the impersonal forces toward an American dream. However, it is also a reward (through non-conformity) because under the Capitalistic society the freedom of choice of which road to take on the travel upward through the impersonal forces toward the American dream is left up to the individual, not the government.

A Look Back at History: Failure versus Success

By Trudy A. Martinez

Populism is a cry of reform from rural America as a result of economic expansionism and urbanization. When times are bad for the farmers in the mid-west (the new rural America), they call for reform for themselves and the working class in the eastern factories and industries (the new urban America). The Populist effort to alter the status quo reveals a strong desire for reform, a sense of fair play, and a sense of hope. Their determination to correct a dream of false optimism on the verge of reaching hopelessness presents political overtures. However, reform and enforcement will only be made through the Steward of the rich, the President, through Progressivism.

The restructuring to come will produce a new hope for the rising, so the rich can continue on with the purpose of their nation, their religion, their goal in life, to bring America and eventually the world under their control.
The laws government places on the books for Progressivism are mere building blocks for future reorganization, clarification, and enforcement; they are utilized only if there is a need to give an influx of hope in the prevention of revolution.

The Regulatory laws are supposed to STOP corporation corruption and monopolies in the process. The purpose of the regulatory laws is to give a sense of purpose. It forbids railroads from engaging in discriminatory practices, requires them to publish their rate schedules, prohibits them from entering pooling agreements for the purpose of maintaining high rates, and declares the rates shall be reasonable and just. The purpose of controlling such actions is prohibited through vague and obscure language. Regulatory laws assert the governments right to regulate private enterprise, but give only a sense of purpose, an exerted means of dominance, allowing the elite to prosper and gain control of the largest businesses and corporations while government turns its back; this action (or inaction) by the government, allows the owners of the means of production to capitalize at the expense of the working class.

America is now urban, not rural. The rural Populist want government control of savings accounts, women rights, income tax reform, more silver in circulation, and elimination of the gold standard. The Knights of Labor, the urban working class reform agency, call for the recognition of labor unions and an eight (8) hour work day.

The Populist reform movement raises some legitimate demands. However, the rural American farmers, the Populist, and the urban American workers, the Knights of Labor, the common man, wouldn’t and couldn’t join together to defeat the money elite during the period 1865 – 1900. We are lead to believe the reason no changes occur for the good of the common man is because of this factor.

The Populist, William Jennings Bryan, ran on the Democratic ticket for three elections. The Democrats lost all three elections. East versus West is the name of the game. Divide, conquer, and control is the method in use to keep the common man’s demands from becoming reality.
Years later the same reforms will finally be given to the common man, but by the Progressives, the Stewards of the rich.

The Progressive movement, controlled by the social elite, begins to emerge in 1901 with the death of President McKinley. Theodore Roosevelt emerges as the Steward of the people, bringing Conservationism and a New Nationalism. Roosevelt chose his successor to the Presidency, Howard Taft. Roosevelt got angry with Taft, when he is unable to control him. As a result, he breaks from the party and runs against him on a progressive ticket (the Bull Moose Party). William Jennings Bryan, the Populist, has little hope of winning as he is now running against an eastern Progressive Taft and a western Progressive Taft. This split leads to the election of Woodrow Wilson in the election of 1912 and a change in progressive measures from Conservationism and the New Nationalism of Roosevelt to the New Freedom of Wilson.

Wilson stresses individualism and state’s rights. “No one but the President,” he said, “seems to be expected . . . to look out for the general interest of the country.” He develops a program of progressive reform and asserts international leadership in building a new world order. In 1917 he proclaims American entrance into World War I, a crusade to make the world “safe for democracy.” Wilson maneuvers reform legislation through congress, the Underwood Tariff Act, 1913; attached to the measure is a graduated income tax, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1914. Wilson also gets passage of the Federal Reserve Act which provides for a more flexible money supply and the Federal Trade Commission to prohibit unfair business practices. Later legislation prohibits child labor, and establishes the eight (8) hour work day. Wilson’s action towards these reforms and the slogan, “he kept us out of war”, insures his re-election to office in 1916.

Did Wilson know and plan our entrance into the World War? Was the legislation he passes for the benefit of the common man or to get the common man’s support for him so that he can lead them to war for his purpose?

Wilson asserts his international leadership in building a new world order. In doing so, the Clayton Anti-trust Act of 1914 suspends and trade is given to big business to produce war materials and continues the big business spending into the 1920’s with military expenditures and exports. The Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 drastically reduces tariffs on import goods allowing consumers low-cost goods, but the action proves invalid because in time of war there are no imports.

Shortly after Wilson’s re-election, he concludes that America cannot remain neutral in the world war. With congress’s concurrence, America declares war on Germany, swinging the pendulum of balance in favor of the Allies.
The Treaty of Versailles reflects the winner of the First World War’s attempt at a peace conference with everyone in attendance, but the loser; this is a big mistake. The main four (4) writers of the treaty are Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America; Lord George, Prime Minister of Britain; Orlando of Italy; and George Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France. The big three are no match for Woodrow Wilson who comes to the Treaty with his famous fourteen (14) points already written, but then again, Woodrow Wilson is no match for them; he comes to the conference with the attitude that he is the savior of the world, relinquishing his responsibilities of the Presidency in favor of this grand vision. The other big three are men of the world, ruthless, greedy, domineering, authoritarians with a stubborn revengeful streak. The personal traits of the big four exhibit greed, and /or a lack of foresight on their part concerning the Treaty of Versailles. Their attitude and actions will instill the spark of the Second World War in the treaty of the first.

The French, the Italians, and the English will not accept some of the fourteen (14) points Woodrow Wilson wrote and brings with him to the conference. Instead, they insist on excluding five (5) of the points promoting open diplomacy and then, to top it off, refuses the admittance of Germany, the loser, to the conference. The big three, George, Orlando, and Clemenceau force feed an additional paragraph to the end of the treaty. The guilt clause places all the blame and responsibility for the war on Germany, requiring Germany to pay 33 billion in restitution and only allows them a 100,000 man security force; it cannot fortify its boarders, and the rivers are to maintain a free status, whereas, anyone can use them, not just Germans.

No one bothers to get input from Germany or their side on any of the issues. As a result of the winner’s ignorance by disregarding the loser, by not including the loser in the peace conference, by not clearing up all the issues on both sides (the winner’s and the loser’s) and the treaty’s assigning guilt of the war solely on Germany, the treaty serves as the spark that will generate and unleash the Second World War some twenty years later.

Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America (a Democrat) not only makes the mistake of going to Paris for six months, leaving America without a President to guide it, but also fails to appoint an influential Republican to the American delegation at the peace conference at Paris. This is a critical error on his part. Wilson is so set on doing everything himself, and of getting all the credit for a peaceful resolution to the war, he fails to see he is in error with his totalitarian attitude. Wilson ignores the obvious. Although he is a brilliant historian and an intelligent man, Wilson is not strong enough to go up against men like George, Orlando, and Clemenceau. When President Wilson takes the treaty back to the United States to get the Senate to sign it, the Senate refuses, mainly because they had not been advised. Therefore, the U. S. officially stays at war with Germany until 1921, when congress puts some insignificant thing through that ultimately determines that no state of war exists. This is an embarrassment to Wilson.

The Treaty of Versailles births the League of Nations; the fore runner of the United Nations, a brain storm of Wilson’s which gives the nations of the world a method, a way, and a place to discuss its problems. The League of Nations will help to prevent wars by using reason as an alternative, gaining membership of all nations, except that of his own nation, the United States of America.

In conclusion, and in my opinion, our destiny was and is guided by diversion. Populism is a means of recognizing the need for reform in America, giving only a sense of hope for reforms, whereas Progressivism is actions taken by the Steward of the rich, the President, an approach to appeasing the masses with reforms that are only temporary measures that will prove worthless. The failures of the Treaty of Versailles may have been avoided and the Second World War prevented had President Wilson stayed at home, leaving the negotiation of the peace treaty to others who were more qualified in influencing and handling men like the big three. Had President Woodrow Wilson sent his famous fourteen (14) points to the conference with equal representation of the two main political parties in America in delegation, the out-come of the conference and the injustices of the Treaty of Versailles may have been avoided. The treaty as written in Versailles is the spark that ultimately brings on the Second World War and the rises of power in Germany of Adolph Hitler. Hitler uses the guilt excursion of the treaty as basic fuel for the buildup of emotions of the German people, an unsurpassed hatred which gives rise to the Nazi Party, the Third Reich, and the unheard of destruction and death that follows.

Rosenberg, Dr. Cerro Coso Community College (CCCC). Ridgecrest, California. History 17B. Summer 1990

How does DeTocqueville’s Democracy in America help you to understand and deal with the media in relationship to ideals, values, and myths? by Trudy A. Martinez

How does DE Tocqueville’s Democracy in America help you to understand and deal with the media in relationship to ideals, values, and myths?
By Trudy A. Martinez

Influence and the ramification of world history had a critical bearing upon the construction of the American order. Whereas, today the influence and the ramification of the media’s interpretation of international and foreign affairs has critical bearing on America’s future.

America is an archetype for the world; it was and is a speculative design to emancipate the world into Capitalism, a new world denomination. With the Soviet Union joining the ranks of Capitalism, for a while it appeared the American elite and Soviet elite would become the governing agents of the world. De Tocqueville speaks as if he is living in the twentieth century when he says in his book, Democracy in America,

“There are at the present time two great nations in the world which started from different points, but seem to tend towards the same end. I allude to Russians and Americans . . . They suddenly place themselves in the front rank among the nations . . . these alone are proceeding with ease and celerity along a path to which no limit can be perceived . . . each of them seems marked out by the will of Heaven to sway the destinies of . . . the globe”(142).

The media had a field day with the Russians conversion into Capitalism. The propaganda of consumerism sways socialism into materialism. De Tocqueville appears to have known back in the eighteenth hundreds that America will come to be a dominate nation because he implies,

“There is less difference at the present day between the Europeans and their descendants in the New World . . . this tendency to [assimilate] brings foreign nations closer and closer to each other . . . “(De Tocqueville 142).

When Russia begins their industrial revolution, she mimics the history of America; Russia put a similar numbing seize upon the common Russian people by confining the common people’s freedom and striking unconstitutional authority over them through the execution of behaviorism.

“As social conditions become more equal, the number of persons increases who, although they are neither rich nor powerful enough to exercise any great influence over their fellows, have nevertheless acquired or retained sufficient education and fortune to satisfy their own wants. They own nothing to any man, they expect nothing from any man; they acquire the habit of always considering themselves as standing alone, and they are apt to imagine that their whole destiny is in their own hands” (De Tocqueville).

Christianity now openly appears in Russia. Is this the Russian man’s own urge to recapture paradise lost? Or is this merely the media’s communique for justification for Russian people’s persecution by sovereignty clique which is strongly colored by the media’s propaganda towards economic gain? In Russia, the myth, “The Russian Dream” is an external component of “hope”, whereas in America, “the American Dream” is internal “hope”. The difference may be seen in the mannerisms of the people. Russian’s have been on the brink of revolution while Americans accept their fate of oppression while remaining optimistic because the magic ingredient, “hope”, is programmed into the brain at a very early age. In this way America prevents revolution. The question is did Russia wait too long to join the ranks of the Americans? Is it still possible for Russia to pull the blind fold over the eyes of the Russian people without a revolution? Only time will tell. Will history repeat itself in the fashion of Anatole France or America?

The Founding Fathers of America set-up three branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branch. The objective is to connect, but yet segregate the distinguish segments of the government for the purpose of providing checks and balances within the system that will protect the government from despotism (dictatorship). “Yellow Journalism” facilitates the influencing of people in the efforts of sanctioning the Constitution through the publishing of The Federalist Papers, (an interpretation of the Constitution), adhered by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Federalist envision a powerful central government with individual state governments all syndicated together in a “firm union” (No. 9) revolving around the main force, the federal government. With this theme, the greatest amount of “liberty” will be afforded the individual states while strengthening the union to protect the union from internal and external fractions.

“The inference to which we are brought, is, that the causes of faction cannot be removed; and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects” (Madison #10). There are two methods of removing the causes of faction: the one by destroying the liberty which is essential to its existence; the other, by giving to every citizen the same opinion, the same passions, and the same interest” (Madison #10).

In other words, if we are to remove the causes of faction, we will destroy the liberty that “is essential to political life” (Madison #10). “Liberty” is to remain to preserve political life. Therefore, the effects of faction require controls through “sameness” (the concept of a partnership, in love, in marriage, in all endeavors), thereby, stifling individuality of the masses and effectively changing the value of man from a sharing nature to a selfish nature, making us all “as good citizens those who have no sympathy for any but themselves (De Tocqueville 194)” in order to form an equality basis.

In religious terms equality means “oneness”; i. e., we are all equally individual in the eyes of God, whereas in a capitalistic industrial society, equality has come to mean “sameness”. Thus, (in most cases) the individual is stifled; he is kept from realizing full knowledge or a true (creative) individuality. This is due to the controlling of the effects of faction within the society.

To effectively control a notion of sameness “the law increased the strength of . . . authorities (De Tocqueville 112)” while at the same time “it enfeebled more and more those which were naturally weak . . . the body is . . . free . . . the soul. . . is enslaved” (De Tocqueville 112). When a man’s soul is enslaved, reality escapes him; he is no longer free–liberty becomes a fantasy. “Liberty of opinion” comes to be taboo. This taboo of opinion may be seen through the lack of literary genius in America (when an intellectual emanates to show his/her genius in the literary field, he/she is quailed through tyranny of the majority) (De Tocqueville 114 – 119). “Sameness” is achieved through the ideology of Locke with “a passive affect, man is driven, the object of motivations of which he himself is not aware (Fromm 18). It is a concept whereby a few govern the masses, a system by which a sovereignty clique discontinues man’s conception of revolt through a myth, a fantasy with the help of the media, the Fourth Undeclared Branch of Government.

The arrangement of the American nation is contrived by a combination of perceptions: Locke’s ideology braced with a notion of “sameness” and a strict moral code with the execution of purism. The concept stresses religious freedom and the separation of the church and the state. But instead of separating the church from the state, the church is incorporated into the state delivering and individual through optimism into contention with an infinite quantity of objective forces (impersonal forces) joined together in harmony and charted to confuse, bewilder, and overwhelm common man and deliver him into submission of the greedy ambitions of the affluent.

“Men who live in democratic communities . . . seldom indulge in meditation . . . they . . . naturally entertain very little esteem for it . . . he risks less in making use of some false principles, then in spending his time in establishing all his principles, on the basis of truth” (De Tocqueville 165).

When you consider the happenings in Russia and read about the transition of socialism (communism) to capitalism, you find yourself wondering if there isn’t a conspiracy of the rich to control not only America but also the world.

“. . . The rich in democracies always stand in need of the poor; and that in democratic times, you attach a poor man to you more by your manner than by benefits conferred. The magnitude of such benefits, which set off the difference of condition, causes a secret irritation to those who reap advantages of them; but the charm of simplicity of manners is almost irresistible; affability carries men away and even want of polish is not always displeasing. This truth does not take root at once in the minds of the rich. . . that population does not ask them for sacrifice of their money, but of their pride” (De Tocqueville 197).

If America is not aware of America’s devious past, how can the governing few duplicate America’s history in a country on the other side of the world with such precision? How will they know the duplication must be precise to be efficient and to be effective? Why else is religious freedom now suddenly allowed in Russia?

“To minds thus predisposed, every new method which leads by a shorter road to wealth, every machine which spares labor, every instrument which diminishes the cost of production, every discovery which facilitates pleasure . . . seems to be the grandest effort of human intellect. It is chiefly from these motives that democratic people addicts itself to scientific pursuits . . .” (De Tocqueville 167).

As a result of man’s agony perplexed by the overwhelming impersonal forces, common man was and still is forced to conform or seek escape from his reality through the escape mechanisms. Common man ceases to be an individual with a free choice; the freedom guaranteed by the constitution eludes his grasp.

After the Civil War in America, major steps were taken to prevent a repeat of such a catastrophe. A mandatory school system is put in place to educate the masses. But doesn’t it make you wonder if educating the masses is the real reason? Or is the school system set-up to play games such as ‘blind man’s bluff” with the youth of America? Is history white washed? Are the masses controlled to prevent revolution? “Hope” appears to be the magic ingredient which guides the youth through behaviorism into a new way life with new values.

Is there “freedom of the press” in America? Or was and is “freedom of the press” the means of suppressing the masses? Does the press induce the public through the media (newspapers, magazines, television, and the movies) to satisfy the desires of the stronger faction? In the 1890′s as in the 1950′s, “yellow journalism” was a dominate force at work, feeding off the majority, oppressing the weak, with ideologies of Palmer and McCarthy. In 1948 the press is embarrassed. The press got caught wearing the Republican Hat when their papers hit the street announcing Truman’s defeat based on their opinion polls which were to sway the public to their way of thinking. When in actuality, the Democrats went to the polls (the only poll that counts) resulting in a triumph for Truman over Dewey.

“. . . The stronger faction could readily unite and oppress the weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign as in the state of nature, where the weaker individual is not secured against the violence of the stronger”(Madison #51).

The words of De Tocqueville and our forefathers are still true today: the stronger factions control the minds of the masses through the incorporation of TVism into the daily life of millions of Americans. A couch potato became reality when America began growing its vegetation in the living room of the American family.

Nearly every American couch has at least one fat potato planted on it an average of 7.5 hours per day; their job is to watch the “booby-tube”. What to buy? Who to buy it from? Get the dope; get duped; violence, violence, and more violence.

It makes one wonder: is there a conspiracy to shorten the lives of as many Americans as possible to make way for the fresh cheap labor that’s coming to America in the Jungle of new factories, industries, and McDonald’s?

In Mojave, McDonald’s has a new crew, all foreign workers (fresh, cheap, labor); these workers may be working for less than minimum wage. I overheard a conversation between two managers discussing a labor wage contract below the rates of minimum wage laws. How can this be? America makes it possible with laws on the books that allow hiring below minimum wage when the employee is in a training status. Who is to say that a training status doesn’t mean an alien–aliens have to start somewhere learning to be good consumer–iced Americans. McDonald’s are justified aren’t they? After all the American youth are not capable of working: the American youth is not interested—French- fries–fried brains are more along their lines; they have taken up other occupations–materialistic in nature, the materialism of others. Bottle sucking is out; sniffing and intravenous feedings are in.

Meanwhile, the masses of new soon-to-be Americans are converted through the consumerism of advertisement and subliminal messages into materialism to be damned in a hell on earth as the “American Dream” requires props (status symbols) that announce your status with a flare.

The lawyers and judges provide the checks and balances that may keep us safe from tyranny: hence, they control democracy. The trouble is they may be duped too. Legislation has seen controls put upon the media in regards to commercials seen on TV; this action should result in alleviation of some of the control over the minds of the youth (a tendency to convert the youth to the idealism of consumerism by way of deceit seen on the screen). If we require seeking assistance in protecting the privileges guaranteed through the Constitution and the Amendments, the Supreme Court becomes the interpreter and protector of the rights of the people as it is implied in the federalist papers. But not many people ever bother to read the Constitution or the Amendments; the belief alone satisfies. The myth; the American Dream; the red, white, and blue; and the hope for a better tomorrow keep us at bay: separate, divide, and control. A Disneyland of fantasies without revolt, without revolution; the American public is “the object of motivations of which he is not aware” (Fromm 18).

One could say with Democracy in America Tyranny of the majority is born. A foreigner, a French man says it all when he looks through the looking-glass into the “fairy-tale” land of America and says,

“The error arose from seeing the interest of the nobles perpetually contending with those of the people, without considering the issue of the contest, which was really the important point. When a community . . . is equally divided between adverse principles,–it must either experience a revolution, or fall into anarchy . . . social superior to all others must always be placed somewhere . . . liberty is endangered when this power finds an obstacle which can retard its course, and give it time to moderate its own vehemence . . . Unlimited is in itself a bad and dangerous thing. Human beings are not competent to exercise it with discretion. God alone can be omnipotent” (De Tocqueville 115).